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Ioannis Sofokleous, Adriana Bruggeman, Silas Michaelides, Panos Hadjinicolaou, George Zittis, and Corrado Camera

, comprised of various combinations of physics parameterizations, and (v) to evaluate the performance of multiphysics simulations for different horizontal model resolutions. The numerical experiments cover a period of 8 months of the hydrometeorological year 2011–12. 2. Study area and observational datasets a. Study area and climate The simulations geographically focus on Cyprus, an island located in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea, approximately at latitude 35°N and longitude 33°E ( Fig. 1

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Paul A. Dirmeyer, Yan Jin, Bohar Singh, and Xiaoqin Yan

surrounding the Mediterranean Sea shows unanimous consensus during summer, along with Mexico, large parts of southern Africa, South America, Australia (JJA), China (JJA), and central Asia (DJF). Table 7 shows that about 93% of the land in each season experiences a higher LCL. A narrow band of consensus lowering of the cloud base stretches from the Sahel across southern Arabia into the Indus and upper Ganges basins in JJA, as most models tend to bring the summer monsoon farther north in the RCP85

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W. M. De Kock, R. C. Blamey, and C. J. C. Reason

1. Introduction The south Western Cape of South Africa (see Fig. 1 ), like other Mediterranean climate regions (southwestern Western Australia, southeastern South Australia, southern Europe, Morocco, central Chile, and California) is mainly a winter rainfall region. Containing South Africa’s second-largest city of Cape Town, it occupies a small but highly economically and agriculturally productive part of the country, which apart from this region, is summer rainfall dominated. However

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Hector Macian-Sorribes, Ilias Pechlivanidis, Louise Crochemore, and Manuel Pulido-Velazquez

of the most important watercourses in eastern Spain, with a length of 497 km between the Iberian Mountains and the Mediterranean Sea. Its basin covers an area of 22 260 km 2 mainly located in the regions of Castilla–La Mancha and Comunitat Valenciana ( Fig. 1 ), with the Cabriel, Magro, and Albaida Rivers being its main tributaries. Its precipitation pattern is Mediterranean (high rainfall in autumn and very little precipitation during summer), ranging between 309 and 717 mm yr −1 (with an

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Philippe Lucas-Picher, Fredrik Boberg, Jens H. Christensen, and Peter Berg

Danish Meteorological Institute ( Christensen et al. 2006 ). Details on the current version of HIRHAM5 can be found in Lucas-Picher et al. (2011) . The driving field providing initial and lateral boundary conditions is ERA-Interim (hereafter ERA-I; Dee et al. 2011 ), available at a resolution of T255 (~0.7° or ~80 km). The zonal and meridional wind components, atmospheric temperature, specific humidity, and surface pressure are introduced to the RCM at 6-h intervals as LBCs of the model. Sea

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Dimitrios Stampoulis, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, and Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos

. 2008 ). The elevation gradient is relatively weaker than the two northern Italy study areas (from sea level to 1700 m over roughly 70 km). The main Cevennes river basins are Virdourle, Ardeche, Ceze, and Gard and are characterized by a typical Mediterranean hydrological regime with very low levels of water in the summers and floods occurring mainly during fall ( Younis et al. 2008 ). The four storm events selected for this study occurred in the Gard basin. The first event was on 29 September 2007

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Shida Gao, Pan Liu, and Upmanu Lall

transport links evaporation from the ocean and land (including moisture recycling mechanisms) to precipitation over the continents ( Gershunov et al. 2017 , 2019 ). What is the nature of covariability between the leading spatiotemporal modes of seasonal sea surface temperature (SST), the seasonal IVT, and the seasonal precipitation for the Northern Hemisphere (NH)? How well can the leading spatial modes of seasonal precipitation be reconstructed from the leading modes of IVT and SST for the same season

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R. Garreaud

, Academic Press, 573 pp. Huffman, G. J. , and Coauthors , 2007 : The TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis: Quasi-global, multi-year, combined-sensor precipitation estimates at fine scale . J. Hydrometeor. , 8 , 38 – 55 . Krichak, S. , Breitgand J. , and Feldstein S. , 2012 : A conceptual model for the identification of active Red Sea trough synoptic events over the southeastern Mediterranean . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 51 , 962 – 971 . Lavers, D. A. , Allan R. P. , Wood E

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Erin Dougherty, Erin Sherman, and Kristen L. Rasmussen

1. Introduction The duality of California’s Mediterranean climate from wet winters to dry summers poses a challenge in managing water resources, especially when combined with an ever-growing population ( Dettinger et al. 2011 ). While the wet winters in California provide most of the state’s water resources, they can also lead to floods and natural disasters. For example, the Oroville Dam catastrophe in February 2017 was caused by anomalous winter precipitation, near-saturated soils, and

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Junxia Li, Xueping Bai, Yuting Jin, Fangbo Song, Zhenju Chen, Lixin Cai, Fenghua Zou, Mengzhu Jiang, Ruixin Yun, and Zhaoyang Lv

century compared with the three previous centuries ( Urrutia et al. 2011 ); the 400-yr streamflow reconstructions of the Maule, Biobío, and Puelo Rivers showed an increase in the frequency of extreme high and low flow events in the twentieth century in the Chilean temperate Mediterranean climate transition ( Muñoz et al. 2016 ); in northern Argentina, the Río Bermejo flow reconstruction suggested an increase in extreme streamflow events since 1960 compared with the past 300 years ( Ferrero et al. 2015

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