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Yan Zhu, Tim Li, Ming Zhao, and Tomoe Nasuno

understand the relative role of MJO dynamic and thermodynamic fields on the development of HFW. The model consists of a two-level free atmosphere and a barotropic boundary layer. The model covers the global tropical domain (40°S–40°N). It is an anomalous model with specified basic states derived from interpolated ERA-Interim reanalysis data in winter. The basic state consists of both the climatological mean state and active or suppressed MJO field. The upper-level and lower-level background wind fields

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Wan-Ling Tseng, Huang-Hsiung Hsu, Noel Keenlyside, Chiung-Wen June Chang, Ben-Jei Tsuang, Chia-Ying Tu, and Li-Chiang Jiang

; Miura et al. 2007 ; Wu and Hsu 2009 ; Birch et al. 2016 ) and atmosphere–ocean coupling ( Zhu et al. 2010 ). The present study uses the newly developed ECHAM5-SIT model (described in section 2 ), one of the few GCMs that realistically simulate the MJO ( Tseng et al. 2015 ; Jiang et al. 2015 ), to address this unresolved concern. Three experiments are conducted to delineate the relative effects of land–sea contrast and orography in the MC on the MJO and address the following questions: 1) How

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Lei Song and Renguang Wu

standard deviation, and phase 2 is defined as the day located in the middle between phases 1 and 3. The obtained temporal evolution of composite anomalies based on the phase of cold events is similar to that based on the lead–lag time. As there are more time slices in the composite based on the lead–lag days, we obtain clearer features of continuous evolution. Thus, we only show composite anomalies based on the lead–lag days. 3. Features of the MC and IO convection-related cold events Temperature

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Xiang Li, Dongliang Yuan, Zheng Wang, Yao Li, Corry Corvianawatie, Dewi Surinati, Asep Sandra, Ahmad Bayhaqi, Praditya Avianto, Edi Kusmanto, Dirham Dirhamsyah, and Zainal Arifin

about 60 km wide at the sea surface. According to the statistics of the velocity directions of the mooring measurements (figure omitted) and the shortest cross-strait distance at the surface, the along-strait velocity (ASV) direction is defined as 20° clockwise from due north. Negative ASV means flowing from the Pacific Ocean to the Indonesian seas. The ASV is assumed to be unchanged in the cross-strait direction between the 1000 m isobaths in a 32 km section in the middle of the strait and zero

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

satellite precipitation estimates show a decrease in hourly rainfall over the highest peaks of New Guinea (seen as a paler stripe through the middle of the island), an effect that is much less pronounced in the WRF Model simulations. This region is problematic, since there is also a possibility of errors in the satellite estimates over the steepest and highest topography, and there are few rain gauges in the area for independent validation [see discussion in Vincent and Lane (2016a) and Hassim et al

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Chidong Zhang and Jian Ling

convergence −∇ ⋅ ( V q ) = −[∂( uq )/∂ x + ∂( υq )/∂ y + ∂( ωq )/∂ p ] provides a large-scale source of moisture, and moisture is removed from the atmosphere by precipitation through microphysical processes represented by Q 2 . The differential behaviors between the vanguard of precipitation of MJO-B and MJO-C might result from the large-scale moisture sources over the MC. Total moisture flux convergence averaged through a layer of 850–500 hPa over the MC does not exhibit significant differences

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Casey R. Densmore, Elizabeth R. Sanabia, and Bradford S. Barrett

tropopause to the mid- and lower stratosphere during QBOEM and QBOEL, respectively, but become more positive with height (shear anomalies are positive) from below the tropopause to the mid- and lower stratosphere during QBOWM and QBOWL, respectively ( Figs. 5a,b ). These differences in QBO phase characteristics also extend to atmospheric static stability ( ; Fig. 5c ) and to static stability anomalies ( Fig. 5d ). Although stratospheric static stability is positive (the atmosphere is stable) for all

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James H. Ruppert Jr. and Fuqing Zhang

Fig. 6 , which are for the rainfall systems of (top) Borneo, (middle) Karimata Strait, and (bottom) Sumatra. Rainfall is plotted according to the right ordinate (mm h −1 ). These patterns suggest a gravity wave mode that is coupled to and excited by the synchronized, vigorous nocturnal convective systems over Sumatra and Borneo ( Figs. 6 and 8 ). This gravity mode hence assumes a zonal wavelength of ~1500 km, roughly matching the spacing between these two systems. Despite the slower phase speed

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