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T. N. Krishnamurti, Ruby Krishnamurti, Anu Simon, Aype Thomas, and Vinay Kumar

transports were sensitive to the phase of westerly winds of the lower and the upper troposphere in modulating the Kelvin wave. The role of friction was examined for the excitation of MJO by Liu and Wang (2012b) , who noted a wavenumber dependence; that is, for long waves with wavenumbers less than 5, the Ekman pumping of moisture helped their growth from the moisture convergence. A formal study on scale interactions in the MJO was authored by Wang and Liu (2011) , who noted that the eddy heat and

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Boualem Khouider and Andrew J. Majda

-scale superclusters as the moist analogs of the equatorial shallow-water waves of Matsuno (1966) but with a severely reduced phase speed ( Takayabu 1994 ; Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 ) and a front-to-rear vertical tilt in zonal wind, temperature, heating, and humidity profiles ( Wheeler et al. 2000 ; Straub and Kiladis 2002 ). These moisture-coupled waves are often referred to as convectively coupled waves (CCWs; Takayabu 1994 ; Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 ; Wheeler et al. 2000 ; Kiladis et al. 2009

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Steven K. Esbensen, Jan-Hwa Chu, Wen-wen Tung, and Robert G. Fovell

Group, U.S. Air Force) to provide a more complete collection of teletyped reports. There were no copying machines in 1958 and the loaned data forms had to be returned promptly, so Yanai copied the data by hand, day and night. The drawing of streamlines, isotherms, cross sections, and so forth, and the analysis of the formation process, occupied two full years of his graduate work. To study the heat source of this typhoon, Yanai defined the Q 1 (heat source) and Q 2 (moisture sink) terms ( Fig. 3

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Eric D. Maloney and Chidong Zhang

. These include the vertically integrated moist static energy budget and its development from moisture and heating profiles ( section 3 ), cumulus momentum transport ( section 4 ), eddy available potential and kinetic energy budgets ( section 5 ), and tropical–extratropical interactions ( section 6 ). The legacy of MJO research carried on by Professor Yanai’s students is discussed in section 7 . Concluding remarks follow in section 8 . 2. The discovery of the MJO by Roland Madden and Paul Julian

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Robert G. Fovell and Wen-wen Tung

heat sources ( Q 1 ) and moisture sinks ( Q 2 ) and associating them with the bulk properties of convective systems, and his diagnostic studies of the Asian monsoon, in particular his pioneering works on the impacts of the Tibetan Plateau on the Asian monsoon. In 1986, the American Meteorological Society honored him with the Charney Award. In 1993, he received the Fujiwara Award from the Meteorological Society of Japan. Before the advent of online archives and powerful search engines, his UCLA

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Guang J. Zhang and Xiaoliang Song

1. Introduction The parameterization of atmospheric convection has been an active research area for over half a century (see reviews by Arakawa 2000 , 2004 ). Convective transport of heat and moisture, and the latent heat release associated with it play a fundamental role in large-scale atmospheric circulation ( Riehl and Malkus 1958 ). This role was quantitatively expressed in terms of apparent heat source and moisture sink by Yanai et al. (1973) . Because of its small spatial and temporal

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Branko Kosović, Scott W. McIntosh, Fei Chen, Kathleen Miller, Marshall Shepherd, Marcus Williams, and Sheldon Drobot

white fly ( Nigam et al. 2016 ), among others. Solar-induced fluorescence (SIF; Yang et al. 2015 ) indicates photosynthetic activity with space-based monitoring capabilities ( Guan et al. 2015 ), and gross primary productivity (GPP; Running et al. 2000 ) can indicate biomass and carbon allotment for use in crop modeling. Soil moisture products from NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) and the European Space Agency’s Soil Moisture and Ocean salinity instruments could provide much improved

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Margaret A. LeMone, Wayne M. Angevine, Christopher S. Bretherton, Fei Chen, Jimy Dudhia, Evgeni Fedorovich, Kristina B. Katsaros, Donald H. Lenschow, Larry Mahrt, Edward G. Patton, Jielun Sun, Michael Tjernström, and Jeffrey Weil

drive the exchange of momentum, heat, and moisture between the surface and the atmosphere, and strongly affect human activities. “Boundary layer” has a specific meaning in theoretical and experimental fluid dynamics, and the ABL is both similar to and different from those boundary layers. It is similar in being directly affected by a surface, but different in scale (on the order of a kilometer rather than a meter or less). 1 Laboratory flows have well-defined boundary conditions, while Earth

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development are controlled by the low level jet, the return flow of moisture from the Gulf of Mexico during the winter and early spring months, the development of mesoscale convective complexes, frontal passages? What are the implications of the regional east–west gradients in altitude, soil type, vegetation, temperature, and precipitation on radiative fluxes? How important are seasonally varying distributions of aerosols and particulates (e.g., from regional oil refineries, or from burning of wheat

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Kazuyoshi Oouchi and Masaki Satoh

multicellular squall line. This type of squall line is a coherently organized ensemble of convective cells at the mesobeta scale ( Houze 1977 ). It moves forward against the environmental flow, which is essentially a manifestation of the life cycle of the inner convective cell with mesogamma scale that occurs by a convergence at the leading edge of the system-scale cold pool; the flow feeds moisture into the inner cells and interacts with the cold pool to sustain the cells in the entire system and, as a

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