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Franklin R. Robertson, Michael G. Bosilovich, and Jason B. Roberts

) . One common finding from these and other studies is that no single model can be regarded as sufficient and that multiple models with alternative forcing offer the most reliable syntheses of fluxes. LSM ensemble mean climatological mean P − ET patterns ( Fig. 6a ) look very much like precipitation climatologies with large values over the Amazon basin, Maritime Continent, and Southeast Asia. Storm tracks impinging on the west coasts of North America and Chile are present. Still, quantitative

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Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Michael G. Bosilovich, and Randal D. Koster

North American extreme precipitation . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 38 , L04705 , doi: 10.1029/2010GL046258 . Barnes, E. A. , Dunn-Sigouin E. , Masato G. , and Woollings T. , 2014 : Exploring recent trends in Northern Hemisphere blocking . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 41 , 638 – 644 , doi: 10.1002/2013GL058745 . Bosilovich, M. G. , and Coauthors , 2015 : MERRA-2: Initial evaluation of the climate. NASA Tech. Memo. NASA/TM-2015-104606/Vol. 43, 145 pp. [Available online at https

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Lawrence Coy, Paul A. Newman, Steven Pawson, and Leslie R. Lait

their vertical extent. By April, easterlies completely surround the separated upper-westerly jet. In summary, during the November–February period, the average lower-stratospheric EP fluxes extended from north to south across the equator as expected for planetary waves propagating from the NH to the SH. A complete understanding of theses waves and their relatively large contribution to the momentum budget and flux ( Figs. 4 and 5 ) needs further investigation. Fig . 6. Monthly averaged zonal mean

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Ronald Gelaro, Will McCarty, Max J. Suárez, Ricardo Todling, Andrea Molod, Lawrence Takacs, Cynthia A. Randles, Anton Darmenov, Michael G. Bosilovich, Rolf Reichle, Krzysztof Wargan, Lawrence Coy, Richard Cullather, Clara Draper, Santha Akella, Virginie Buchard, Austin Conaty, Arlindo M. da Silva, Wei Gu, Gi-Kong Kim, Randal Koster, Robert Lucchesi, Dagmar Merkova, Jon Eric Nielsen, Gary Partyka, Steven Pawson, William Putman, Michele Rienecker, Siegfried D. Schubert, Meta Sienkiewicz, and Bin Zhao

reanalysis MERRAero ( Buchard et al. 2015 ). Precipitation observations have also been used in reanalyses produced by NOAA, including the North American Regional Reanalyis ( Mesinger et al. 2006 ) and in the CFSR ( Saha et al. 2010 ; Meng et al. 2012 ), although in both cases the approaches differ from that used in MERRA-2. Some discussion of the differences between the approaches used in MERRA-2 and CFSR can be found in Reichle et al. (2017a) . The corrected precipitation in MERRA-2 is derived from

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C. A. Randles, A. M. da Silva, V. Buchard, P. R. Colarco, A. Darmenov, R. Govindaraju, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, R. Ferrare, J. Hair, Y. Shinozuka, and C. J. Flynn

most regions, the analyzed MERRA-2 AOD resembles the forecasted AOD. Exceptions appear, for example, over China and northern Africa. Both the MERRA-2 forecasted AOD (which retains the influence of the previous assimilation step) and the analyzed AOD fields show differences relative to the control experiment. Without AOD assimilation, M2REPLAY generally has higher overall AOD, particularly over the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic, over and downwind of China, and over the Sahara. Fig . 6. (left

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Allison B. Marquardt Collow and Mark A. Miller

for the dry season. The black dot in Figs. 8 through 13 represents the location of the AMF1, while the gray lines are the centers of the Amazon River and its tributaries. The Rio Negro is located north and west of the AMF1 in Manacapuru, Brazil, and the Rio Solimões is south and west. These two rivers merge to form the Amazon River to the east of the AMF1 near Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro and Amazon River are resolved in MERRA-2; however, the rivers to the south are not. Fig . 8. Regional (a

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