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Jian Ling, Yuqing Zhao, and Guiwan Chen

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ) is the dominant component of intraseasonal (30–90 days) variability in the tropics. It consists of a circulation of planetary zonal scales coupled with organized deep convection. Its convection usually forms over the central Indian Ocean, propagates eastward across the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent (MC) and warm pool along the equator at an average speed of about 5 m s −1 , and disappears over the central

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Lei Song and Renguang Wu

in occurrence of cold surges over East Asia in association with Arctic Oscillation . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 32 , L14704 , . 10.1029/2005GL023024 Jin , F. , and B. J. Hoskins , 1995 : The direct response to tropical heating in a baroclinic atmosphere . J. Atmos. Sci. , 52 , 307 – 319 ,<0307:TDRTTH>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<0307:TDRTTH>2.0.CO;2 Kanamitsu , M. , W. Ebisuzaki , J. Woollen

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Xiang Li, Dongliang Yuan, Zheng Wang, Yao Li, Corry Corvianawatie, Dewi Surinati, Asep Sandra, Ahmad Bayhaqi, Praditya Avianto, Edi Kusmanto, Dirham Dirhamsyah, and Zainal Arifin

hindcast simulation forced by the NCEP–NCAR wind forcing during 2000–11 is used to form the mean velocity. The Global Ocean Forecasting System (GOFS) 3.1 operated by the Center for Ocean–Atmosphere Predictions Studies of Florida State University employs the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) forced by the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM) atmospheric forcing and the U.S. Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation system ( Cummings 2005 ; Chassignet et al. 2009 ), with a horizontal resolution of 0

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Chidong Zhang and Jian Ling

convergence −∇ ⋅ ( V q ) = −[∂( uq )/∂ x + ∂( υq )/∂ y + ∂( ωq )/∂ p ] provides a large-scale source of moisture, and moisture is removed from the atmosphere by precipitation through microphysical processes represented by Q 2 . The differential behaviors between the vanguard of precipitation of MJO-B and MJO-C might result from the large-scale moisture sources over the MC. Total moisture flux convergence averaged through a layer of 850–500 hPa over the MC does not exhibit significant differences

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