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Youichi Tanimoto, Kou Shimoyama, and Shoichi Mori

limited number of soundings obtained during individual observation cruises does not allow the temporal changes of the MABL to be captured on a synoptic time scale. Instead, any synoptic weather disturbance occurring during the observation cruise has tended to be treated as noise when extracting the ocean-to-atmosphere effects. Satellite measurements have the potential to provide frequent and global measurements of the vertical structures of temperature and moisture over the ocean. However, the

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Hyodae Seo

, experiments, and data a. Model description The Scripps Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Regional (SCOAR) model ( Seo et al. 2007a , 2014 , 2016 ; http://hseo.whoi.edu/scoar ) is a regional coupled climate model that couples the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF; Skamarock et al. 2008 ) Model to the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS; Haidvogel et al. 2000 ; Shchepetkin and McWilliams 2005 ). The interacting boundary layer is based on the bulk formula ( Fairall et al. 1996 ; 2003 ), which calculates the

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A. Foussard, G. Lapeyre, and R. Plougonven

( Chelton et al. 2001 , 2004 ; O’Neill et al. 2003 ). It was also revealed through the signature of ocean eddies in turbulent air–sea fluxes of sensible and latent heat ( Bourras et al. 2004 ), or in cloud cover and rain rates ( Frenger et al. 2013 ). The coupling between the atmosphere and narrow oceanic structures has been explored through various analyses of the horizontal momentum budget in the boundary layer based on theoretical models ( Samelson et al. 2006 ; Schneider and Qiu 2015 ) or

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Hyodae Seo, Young-Oh Kwon, Terrence M. Joyce, and Caroline C. Ummenhofer

Magnusdottir 2014 ; O’Reilly et al. 2016 ). The diabatic forcing associated with an SST anomaly initiates a baroclinic adjustment in the atmosphere near the forcing region ( Hoskins and Karoly 1981 ; Li and Conil 2003 ; Ferreira and Frankignoul 2005 ), which is linear about the sign and size of the SST anomaly ( Deser et al. 2007 ). However, the overall large-scale response has an equivalent barotropic structure with no strong resemblance to the prescribed SST anomaly pattern ( Ferreira and Frankignoul

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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

–O cyclone forecasting errors. Over the northwestern Pacific Ocean and northwestern Atlantic Ocean, the Kuroshio/Kuroshio Extension and the Gulf Stream (i.e., western boundary currents) supply a large amount of heat and moisture to the midlatitude atmosphere (e.g., Kelly et al. 2010 ; Kwon et al. 2010 ). Several previous studies have shown that the supply of heat and moisture contributed to the rapid development of extratropical cyclones through decreased atmospheric stability and increased latent

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Benoît Vannière, Arnaud Czaja, Helen Dacre, and Tim Woollings

1. Introduction The long-term climatological impact of the SST gradient on the atmosphere has been identified both in observations and numerical experiments. The meanderings of the ocean fronts are tightly related to mesoscale features of the low-level atmosphere, such as the curl and divergence of wind stress ( Xie 2004 ; Chelton et al. 2004 ) and cloud cover ( Small et al. 2008 ). Minobe et al. (2008) proposed a climatological pathway by which the Gulf Stream SST gradient affects the

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Bunmei Taguchi and Niklas Schneider

in atmosphere–ocean coupled general circulation models (CGCM; Latif and Barnett 1994 ; Kwon and Deser 2007 ; Teng and Branstator 2011 ). While advection by the mean flow is suggested as the underlying cause, OHC anomalies in general are active tracers that propagate as baroclinic Rossby waves along trajectories distinct from mean flow advection. Clarifying the dynamics of the propagating OHC anomalies is the subject of this contribution. A number of processes can account for the dichotomy of

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Kotaro Katsube and Masaru Inatsu

forcing resides near the wave-permissive area. We summarize the process in the illustration ( Fig. 14 ) as follows. The TC develops more rapidly when moving westward over warmer ocean. In the recurved case, stronger intensification of the TC produces more diabatic heating, which then acts as a forcing on the planetary-scale atmosphere. The TC tends to move northward rapidly after recurvature, being advected by the anomalous steering flow. This can be called TC intensity–track feedback. In contrast, in

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida and Shoshiro Minobe

horizontal resolution of atmospheric models ( Willison et al. 2013 , 2015 ; Smirnov et al. 2015 ). Therefore, multiresolution experiments with coordinated SST anomalies using multi-AGCMs and atmosphere–ocean coupled GCMs will contribute to better understanding the interaction among SST fronts, the storm track, and large-scale circulations in the climate system. Acknowledgments We thank Akira Yamazaki for calculating the eddy components. This research was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion

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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

) and MSM data (green line). The location of the cyclone at its maximum deepening rate is also shown by a circle. The reproducibility of the cyclone in the CNTL run was better than that in the H15 simulation using a high-resolution coupled atmosphere–ocean regional model, CReSS–Non Hydrostatic Ocean model for the Earth Simulator (NHOES) ( Aiki et al. 2015 ). This is because the maximum deepening rate in the H15 simulation was 2.8 hPa h −1 , which is lower than that in the CNTL run and the MSM

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