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Raymond McCord and Jimmy Voyles

, the interactions between the researchers and the data system changed in ways that could not be anticipated at the start of ARM. Fig . 11-2. ARM data life cycle includes programmatic, infrastructure, and external elements. 2. Initial requirements Data system–related activities for ARM were a major component of the programmatic scope from the very beginning of the planning and implementation ( Cress and Sisterson 2016 , chapter 5). The major components of the original ARM Program plan ( U

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Robert G. Ellingson, Robert D. Cess, and Gerald L. Potter

. His death was a major setback, but his vision and plans for ICRCCM allowed the project to continue under the leadership of Robert Ellingson and Yves Fouquart. Going into ICRCCM, the assumption was that the physics and absorption line data were well known and that therefore the various models could not possibly disagree much, regardless of the type of parameterization (i.e., the details of the implementation). This complacency was shattered by the actual results of ICRCCM. For the longwave clear

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D. D. Turner and R. G. Ellingson

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is by all measures a unique enterprise. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conceived the Program in 1990 as its primary contribution to the then newly created U.S. Global Change Research Program. Ari Patrinos, who was a DOE program manager in 1990, said in his forward to the ARM Program Plan that [the] recent heightened concern about global warming from an enhanced greenhouse effect has prompted the department (DOE) to accelerate the research

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J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, and T. P. Ackerman

that had been originally planned ( U.S. Department of Energy 1990 ; appendix A, Stokes and Schwartz 1994 ), with the installation of the millimeter-wave cloud radar (MMCR; see Kollias et al. 2016 ). The following years saw the deployment of the first and second Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites at Manus and Nauru ( Long et al. 2016 ) and the deployment of ARM instrumentation during the year-long Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) experiment and at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites

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Beat Schmid, Robert G. Ellingson, and Greg M. McFarquhar

the DOE Atmospheric Remote Sensing and Assessment Program (ARSAP), a joint program with the Department of Defense (DOD) begun as part of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) that was aimed at identifying science problems and associated observations that could be studied with UAVs. During the ongoing planning for ARM, it was recognized that UAVs offered ARM the unprecedented potential of making in-atmosphere measurements at high altitudes (up to and above 20 km) for

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Steven Hanna, Mark Askelson, Marshall Shepherd, Mariana A. Fragomeni, Neil Debbage, and Bradford Johnson

design cities, neighborhoods, and buildings with UHI mitigation strategies in mind, such as employing greening, intentionally modifying albedo, enhancing natural ventilation, implementing bioclimatic and sustainable design concepts, considering alternate construction materials, and planning for land use ( Lowry and Lowry 1988 ; Eliasson 2000 ; Gaffin et al. 2012 ; Stone et al. 2012 ; Olgyay et al. 2015 ; Hunt et al. 2017 ). Urban pollution and air quality are well-known urban climate phenomena

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C. N. Long, J. H. Mather, and T. P. Ackerman

1. Introduction One of the earliest and liveliest discussions of the ARM Program was about the number and possible locations of the proposed ground-based observing sites. Early versions of the ARM Program Plan ( U.S. DOE 1990 ) envisaged placing ground-based remote sensing facilities at five or more locations, but the locations were not specified. As soon as ARM was approved in the Department of Energy budget, determining these locales became one of the highest priorities. The workshops and

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J. Verlinde, B. D. Zak, M. D. Shupe, M. D. Ivey, and K. Stamnes

well as to the local, state, and federal agencies that function on the North Slope, and suggested who they should contact and brief on NSA/AAO plans. A series of public meetings were held in Barrow, Atqasuk, and the other potentially affected North Slope villages in order to ensure that the local people would be aware of what the ARM Program planned to do, why and how, and so that they could influence the plans. With the help of Tom and the Borough, the ARM Program even had Iñupiaq translators

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Robert G. Fovell and Wen-wen Tung

participated in the planning. However, he was also beset with health problems, and passed away on 13 October 2010, a few short months prior to the symposium. He would also have been honored and humbled by this volume, which is the result of the dedicated efforts of the authors, editors, reviewers, and advisors listed below: Prof. Akio Arakawa, Dr. Jian-Wen Bao, Dr. James Benedict, Dr. Amit Bhardwaj, Prof. Lance Bosart, Dr. Mark Branson, Dr. Scott Braun, Dr. Yizhe Peggy Bu, Dr. Yang Cao, Prof. Chih

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Robert M. Rauber, Bruce Carmichael, Jason C. Knievel, and James L. Cogan

identified possible seeding effects ranging from a reduction of 60% to an increase of 500% in total hail mass, depending on the test used, within 90% confidence limits. They determined that no conclusion could be drawn from NHRE about seeding effects for hail reduction. NHRE was planned for five seasons (1972–76), but was halted after three seasons (1972–74) for lack for results and other reasons described by Foote and Knight (1979) . An outcome of NHRE was a fundamental change in the way that

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