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Guoyu Ren, Yaqing Zhou, Ziying Chu, Jiangxing Zhou, Aiying Zhang, Jun Guo, and Xuefeng Liu

urbanization effect reached 71%. If only the Beijing station is considered, the contribution of urban warming to the overall warming is as large as 80% ( Ren et al. 2007 ). However, Li et al. (2004) indicated a much weaker urban warming in some regions and the country as a whole by comparing SAT trends between rural and urban stations. It is clear that the issue of the possible influence of UHI effects on the present available global and regional mean SAT series has not yet been solved. Chinese

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Yongkang Xue, Fernando De Sales, Ratko Vasic, C. Roberto Mechoso, Akio Arakawa, and Stephen Prince

global and seasonal assessment of VBP effects on the water cycle. The assessment was conducted at the global scale (i.e., is not limited to one or two regions) in recognition of the strong interconnections between regional climates, and covers all seasons (i.e., is not limited to the summer). The impact at long temporal scales, however, is not addressed in this study. VBPs include (but are not limited to) radiative transfer in the canopy, moisture exchange between soil layers and extraction by roots

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Kathleen Huybers and Gerard H. Roe

-spaced dataset produced very similar results. However, climate data with a resolution of 0.5° cannot capture the full gamut of climatic effects in mountainous terrain. The unresolved details of small-scale precipitation patterns will not change the results regarding the overall contrast between maritime and continental climates or the general north–south trends due to the inherent spatial scale of the regional climate patterns. It is likeliest to make a difference in the predicted sensitivities of, and

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O. A. Tuinenburg, R. W. A. Hutjes, T. Stacke, A. Wiltshire, and P. Lucas-Picher

regions, the fate of the evaporation from the focus regions, the Ganges River basin moisture budget, and the large-scale effects of irrigation. Section 4 presents the discussion and conclusions. 2. Methods In the current study, the atmospheric effects of irrigation in India are compared using four atmospheric models [HIRHAM, Hadley Centre Regional Climate Model (HadRM), Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), and ECHAM] with explicit irrigation application. As a basis for irrigation, the global

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Zhuo Wang and Chih-Pei Chang

appreciable temperature change in the Indian Ocean. In a case study of the Asian monsoon onset in 1989, Wu and Zhang (1998) suggested that the earliest monsoon onset in the BoB is linked to the thermal and mechanical forcing of the Tibetan Plateau. Based on experiments using a simplified regional climate model, Sato and Kimura (2007) suggested that the Tibetan Plateau induces midtropospheric subsidence over northern India through the thermal and mechanical effects and that the gradual weakening and

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Telmo Cosme António Sumila, Gabrielle Ferreira Pires, Vitor Cunha Fontes, and Marcos Heil Costa

effects on every year after deforestation. We have analyzed the effects of deforestation on the sources of moisture and precipitation on regions that have significant economic activities that depend on rainfall. We conclude that the geographic location of the region is an important determinant of the resiliency of the regional climate to deforestation-induced regional climate change. The more continental the geographic location, the more resilient the climate is to deforestation, and the impacts of

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Xiuquan Wang, Guohe Huang, Jinliang Liu, Zhong Li, and Shan Zhao

local policymakers and climate researchers who are focusing on climate change impact assessment at regional scales ( Wang et al. 2014a ). In this study, we will develop high-resolution regional climate projections over Ontario using an ensemble modeling approach to provide reliable and ready-to-use climate scenarios for assessing plausible effects of future climatic changes. Specifically, we will adopt the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) regional climate modeling system to

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Kelly E. McCusker, David S. Battisti, and Cecilia M. Bitz

on top of the list of relatively realistic solutions that could be deployed in the near future and is the guiding reason for our choice to simulate these injections in a GCM and study its effects on the model’s regional climate. b. Background Many of the geoengineering modeling studies to date evaluate the impact of aerosols or sunshade technology by uniformly reducing the solar constant in a model. Govindasamy and Caldeira (2000) and Govindasamy et al. (2003) showed in their studies that

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Shi Liu, Song Yang, Yi Lian, Dawei Zheng, Min Wen, Gang Tu, Baizhu Shen, Zongting Gao, and Donghai Wang

prediction operations but also for studies of hydrology, ecology, and agriculture. Previous studies have revealed many features of variations of NEC climate in station observations, reanalysis data, and numerical models. Many studies have focused on the synoptic and seasonal-to-interannual features of the regional climate and their relations with tropical and high-latitude influences (e.g., Lian and An 1998 ; Liu and Wang 2001 ). Recent investigations have also been conducted to understand the decadal

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Emily Shuckburgh, Helen Jones, John Marshall, and Chris Hill

1. Introduction Throughout the ocean, satellite altimetry data reveal a complex regional eddy kinetic energy (EKE) distribution ( Stammer 1997 ; Stammer et al. 2006 ). Significant enhancement in eddy activity is observed in the vicinity of strong currents: the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic, the Kuroshio and its extension in the Pacific, and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in the Southern Ocean. Much of this eddy activity arises through baroclinic instability, although barotropic

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