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Elizabeth J. Thompson, Steven A. Rutledge, Brenda Dolan, Merhala Thurai, and V. Chandrasekar

-Rayleigh scattering effects ( BC01 ). It also remains unclear whether any of the dual-polarization R relationships require convective/stratiform (C/S) partitioning. Evidence shows that separate R ( z ) equations fit to stratiform and convective rain over tropical oceans improve radar rainfall estimation there ( T15 ). Dual-polarization R relationships with Z dr , K dp , and A h are thought to implicitly account for C/S DSD variability better than Z h alone ( BC01 ; Ryzhkov et al. 2005b ). However, an

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Matthew A. Janiga and Chidong Zhang

model resolution ( Varble et al. 2014 ), which is likely to affect the vertical eddy moisture transport. Ice clouds, which indirectly affect the moisture tendency through their effects on radiation and large-scale ascent, are also a major uncertainty in CRMs. The framework presented in this study should prove useful in identifying the cause of biases in the moisture–convection relationship in regional and global CRM simulations of the MJO arising from biases in the parameterization of different

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Ji-Hyun Oh, Xianan Jiang, Duane E. Waliser, Mitchell W. Moncrieff, Richard H. Johnson, and Paul Ciesielski

operational analyses on pressure levels are used to compute momentum budget terms. The dataset, generated by Cy37r2 and Cy37r3 versions of the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) truncated at wavenumber T1279 (~16 km), was archived with a 0.25° spatial resolution, 25 vertical levels from the surface to 1 hPa, and a 6-hourly interval. Effects of cloud-scale horizontal pressure gradient are accounted for with a treatment of the vertical transport of horizontal momentum by convection in this model ( Gregory

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James H. Ruppert Jr. and Fuqing Zhang

( Gottschalck et al. 2013 ; Johnson and Ciesielski 2013 ). This study invokes the large-scale convection-permitting regional model simulation described by Wang et al. (2015) , which successfully reproduced the October and November DYNAMO MJO events. The simulation was conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, version 3.4.1 ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ), with the domain shown in Fig. 1 , using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERA

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James N. Moum, Simon P. de Szoeke, William D. Smyth, James B. Edson, H. Langley DeWitt, Aurélie J. Moulin, Elizabeth J. Thompson, Christopher J. Zappa, Steven A. Rutledge, Richard H. Johnson, and Christopher W. Fairall

tropical depression TC05A off the southern cape of India by the U.S. Navy's Joint Typhoon Warning Center at 0000 UTC 26 November. TC05A propagated northwestward into the Arabian Sea, reaching tropical storm status on 28 November, with maximum sustained winds of 35 kt (18 m s −1 ). Though several numerical models predicted the formation of a large tropical disturbance south of Colombo, the fishermen had been provided no warning of the storm. A discussion of the local effects of the storm and potential

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Aurélie J. Moulin, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

Emanuel , K. A. , 1999 : Thermodynamic control of hurricane intensity . Nature , 401 , 665 – 669 , . 10.1038/44326 Fairall , C. W. , E. F. Bradley , J. S. Godfrey , G. A. Wick , J. B. Edson , and G. S. Young , 1996a : Cool-skin and warm-layer effects on sea surface temperature . J. Geophys. Res. , 101 , 1295 – 1308 , . 10.1029/95JC03190 Fairall , C. W. , E. F. Bradley , D. P. Rogers , J. B. Edson

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Angela K. Rowe, Robert A. Houze Jr, Stacy Brodzik, and Manuel D. Zuluaga

dual-polarization capability of S-PolKa to determine whether the microphysical characteristics of the precipitation particles evolve in ways that are related to diurnal effects on the precipitation mechanisms at play in the MJO REs. It is important to note that it is possible for the diurnal cycle to affect the timing of the deep convective rain episodes on a 2-day time scale. Chen and Houze (1997) showed how the upper-level cloud shield of a mesoscale deep convective system over the warm

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James H. Ruppert Jr. and Richard H. Johnson

. 1999 ; Kikuchi and Takayabu 2004 ; Benedict and Randall 2007 ; Haertel et al. 2008 ; Yoneyama et al. 2008 ; Riley et al. 2011 ; Del Genio et al. 2012 ). This well-documented coupling between moist convection and column humidity within the MJO fundamentally owes to the effects of entrainment on ascending moist-convective clouds. The entrainment of low relative-humidity air reduces the buoyancy of these clouds—thereby limiting their terminal height—while entrainment in moister conditions has

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Kacie E. Hoover, John R. Mecikalski, Timothy J. Lang, Xuanli Li, Tyler J. Castillo, and Themis Chronis

central and eastern Pacific Ocean. During the October event, there were very little effects from the austral summer monsoon circulation along with a persistent zonally flat thermocline for much of October and November. The ITCZ was positioned south of the equator over the Indian Ocean, as is typical for boreal winter, and strong equatorial westerlies were set up during December and into January ( Gottschalck et al. 2013 ). For a more in-depth overview of the entire DYNAMO project, the reader is

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Jean-Philippe Duvel

International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) dataset ( Knapp et al. 2010 ) on tropical cyclone observations. Using ERA-I makes it possible to construct an alternative climatology of TD initiations using an objective approach. The aim is to detect more TD initiations at an earlier stage compared to those reported in IBTrACS on the basis of information given by Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers (RSMC). In IBTrACS, there are indeed only a few TDs that do not reach the TS

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