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Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Markus Petters, and Ulrike Lohmann

composition of the “accumulation range” in this figure is key to many of the aerosol–climate effects mentioned herein, as these particles have relatively long lifetimes in the atmosphere due to limited removal mechanisms, and thus can exert influence on regional to global scales; further, this size range interacts most efficiently, per unit mass of particulate matter, with solar radiation, and also generally constitutes the predominant number fraction of CCN. Gelbard and Seinfeld (1979) developed the

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Steven Hanna, Mark Askelson, Marshall Shepherd, Mariana A. Fragomeni, Neil Debbage, and Bradford Johnson

new field of NWP modeling [see the monograph chapter by Benjamin et al. (2019 )] allowed regional and global wind patterns to be simulated. This period also saw studies of short-range effects from stack plumes and vents, particle formation, interactions with rain and snow, and deposition (wet and dry). Increased frequency of major air pollution episodes across the world was raising public concerns that later led to regulation of industrial air pollution sources. In the 1970s–80s, the Clean Air

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Andrew J. Majda and Samuel N. Stechmann

–egg question: Interactions between convective systems and their larger-scale environment In this section, we review recent and past results on convection–environment interactions. MCS–environment interactions are reviewed first in order to set the stage for the relatively new topic of CCW–environment interactions and in order to highlight their similarities and differences. It is well known that MCS can have important effects on the larger-scale atmospheric state in which they exist ( Houze 2004 ). For

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J. Verlinde, B. D. Zak, M. D. Shupe, M. D. Ivey, and K. Stamnes

and phenomena within the central Arctic Ocean (the Arctic ice pack). Participation in SHEBA also brought with it the benefit of collaboration with the NASA-led First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE) Phase III ( Curry et al. 2000 ), which focused on Arctic clouds using satellite and airborne data. c. Outreach The local Iñupiat community in Barrow was familiar with scientific research because virtually every Barrow family had members who had worked

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M. A. Miller, K. Nitschke, T. P. Ackerman, W. R. Ferrell, N. Hickmon, and M. Ivey

and radiation processes by testing relationships developed at the permanent sites in new locations, new regionally specific science questions, and improved interactions with other science programs both nationally and internationally. A prototype design and estimated integration schedule was presented at the meeting ( Widener 2003 ). Mark Miller, who had participated in the NASA FIRE and ASTEX projects, was designated as the Site Scientist for the new AMF1 in 2004, Larry Jones [Los Alamos National

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David Randall, Charlotte DeMott, Cristiana Stan, Marat Khairoutdinov, James Benedict, Rachel McCrary, Katherine Thayer-Calder, and Mark Branson

, and then to intercompare the results of the two models with additional observations from the field ( Randall et al. 1996 ). The column-physics is called a single-column model, and the high-resolution model is sometimes called a process model. An important limitation of this strategy is that, because single-column models and process models represent only a small regional domain, they cannot “feed back” to the large-scale circulation; the effects of the large-scale circulation are simply prescribed

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Chih-Pei Chang, Mong-Ming Lu, and Hock Lim

high pressure system in the world ( Ding 1994 ). In the equatorial region, the deep convection around the Maritime Continent is the most vigorous and extensive large-scale convection system, and its effects reach far beyond the Asian monsoon region and can impact weather in North America ( Yanai and Tomita 1998 ; Yang et al. 2002 ; Chan and Li 2004 ) and Europe ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ). Strong interaction between the midlatitude and tropical components through cold surges and convection feedback

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Mark P. Baldwin, Thomas Birner, Guy Brasseur, John Burrows, Neal Butchart, Rolando Garcia, Marvin Geller, Lesley Gray, Kevin Hamilton, Nili Harnik, Michaela I. Hegglin, Ulrike Langematz, Alan Robock, Kaoru Sato, and Adam A. Scaife

of solar output could have only a limited direct impact on temperatures at the surface and there had to be some manner in which these small modulations could tap into (and thus be amplified by) the very large atmospheric energy cycle to produce significant effects. One possible amplification route, known as the “bottom-up mechanism” involves the direct impact of TSI variations on sea surface temperatures that would then influence the evaporation of water vapor and produce regional-scale feedbacks

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M. Haeffelin, S. Crewell, A. J. Illingworth, G. Pappalardo, H. Russchenberg, M. Chiriaco, K. Ebell, R. J. Hogan, and F. Madonna

launched in 2017. More recently, national meteorological and atmospheric research communities realized that activities around atmospheric profiling measurement and scientific research exploiting these measurements could be coordinated at regional or national levels, which led to construction of national networks of atmospheric profiling observatories. One example is a German network whose goal is to harmonize activities of several observatories around the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for

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John E. Walsh, David H. Bromwich, James. E. Overland, Mark C. Serreze, and Kevin R. Wood

general circulation of the atmosphere based on physical principles ( Abbe 1892 ), including the Coriolis force, well in advance of work by Teisserenc de Bort (1883) , Exner (1913) , Walker (1923) , and others. Figure 21-3 shows the Northern Hemisphere sea level pressure and prevailing winds for January from his analysis. Dall’s (1879) regional map for the same month ( Fig. 21-4 , top panel) shows a more accurate placement of the Aleutian low based on station data that were unavailable to Ferrel

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