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Rezaul Mahmood, Roger A. Pielke Sr., and Clive A. McAlpine

Observational and modeling studies clearly demonstrate that land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) (e.g., Fig. 1 ) plays an important biogeophysical and biogeochemical role in the climate system from the landscape to regional and even continental scales ( Foley et al. 2005 ; Pielke et al. 2011 ; Brovkin et al. 2013 ; Luyssaert et al. 2014 ; Mahmood et al. 2014 ). The biogeochemical effect on the carbon budget is well recognized in both the scientific and policy-making communities. The

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Mitchell W. Moncrieff, Duane E. Waliser, Martin J. Miller, Melvyn A. Shapiro, Ghassem R. Asrar, and James Caughey

transported upward into the atmosphere. From there, the heat is radiated back to space and the moisture may condense and form clouds. Some of the condensate grows large enough to fall back to Earth's surface as precipitation. In this regard, moist convection plays a crucial role in the energy and water cycles of the tropics as well as the variability of the tropical climate system. In concert with its effects on the tropics per se, moist convection can generate planetary (Rossby) waves, which affect

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J. L. Kinter III, B. Cash, D. Achuthavarier, J. Adams, E. Altshuler, P. Dirmeyer, B. Doty, B. Huang, E. K. Jin, L. Marx, J. Manganello, C. Stan, T. Wakefield, T. Palmer, M. Hamrud, T. Jung, M. Miller, P. Towers, N. Wedi, M. Satoh, H. Tomita, C. Kodama, T. Nasuno, K. Oouchi, Y. Yamada, H. Taniguchi, P. Andrews, T. Baer, M. Ezell, C. Halloy, D. John, B. Loftis, R. Mohr, and K. Wong

mitigate the impacts of and successfully adapt to a changing climate will require the investment of trillions of dollars worldwide over the next several decades. In order for these investments to be made efficiently and effectively, accurate predictions of changes in both the mean climate and the frequency of extreme events will be required at the regional level. However, state-of-the-art climate models cannot accurately predict regional climate variations, due largely to their relatively coarse

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Julia Schmale, Andrea Baccarini, Iris Thurnherr, Silvia Henning, Avichay Efraim, Leighton Regayre, Conor Bolas, Markus Hartmann, André Welti, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Franziska Aemisegger, Christian Tatzelt, Sebastian Landwehr, Robin L. Modini, Fiona Tummon, Jill S. Johnson, Neil Harris, Martin Schnaiter, Alessandro Toffoli, Marzieh Derkani, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Frank Stratmann, Josef Dommen, Urs Baltensperger, Heini Wernli, Daniel Rosenfeld, Martin Gysel-Beer, and Ken S. Carslaw

Aerosol characteristics over the Southern Ocean are surprisingly heterogeneous because of the distinct regional dynamics and marine microbial regimes, but satellite observations and model simulations underestimate the abundance of cloud condensation nuclei. Sampling aerosol and trace gases on R/V Akademik Tryoshnikov at the Antarctic coast near the Mertz Glacier (67°09'S, 144°23'E). Photo credit: Julia Schmale. The World Climate Research Programme highlights the fact that “limited understanding

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Ian C. Faloona, Sen Chiao, Arthur J. Eiserloh, Raul J. Alvarez II, Guillaume Kirgis, Andrew O. Langford, Christoph J. Senff, Dani Caputi, Arthur Hu, Laura T. Iraci, Emma L. Yates, Josette E. Marrero, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Stephen Conley, Saffet Tanrikulu, Jin Xu, and Toshihiro Kuwayama

. 2015 ), more frequent wild fires ( Westerling et al. 2006 ), and a possible increase in stratosphere–troposphere exchange ( Stevenson et al. 2006 ), concern is mounting about the ability of California and other western states to meet the NAAQS because of a rising baseline component beyond their regional or national regulatory purview. REGULATORY HISTORY OF O 3 NAAQS AND CALIFORNIA STANDARDS Exposure to ozone (O 3 ) can trigger a variety of health problems, including decreased lung function and

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Jennifer Collins, Amy Polen, Killian McSweeney, Delián Colón-Burgos, and Isabelle Jernigan

on Qualtrics and distributed to Florida residents over the age of 18. The network of distribution consisted of regional and community partnerships and their respective outreach programs including the emergency operations centers of west Florida, the University of South Florida’s College of Public Health, the Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council (TBRPC) and their expansive statewide social media network, and numerous TV stations, particularly Spanish-speaking ones. The primary means of recruitment

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R. C. Bales, D. M. Liverman, and B. J. Morehouse

Managing the effects of climate change requires new approaches to develop and deliver relevant climate information to regional and local decision makers, and to infuse that knowledge into their decision support systems. In the southwestern United States an alternative approach to integrated climate assessment is changing how both researchers and stakeholders view climate information and vulnerability. In this region, climate assessment is an ongoing, sustained process to improve climate awareness, change scientific research on climate, build effective research–applications partnerships around climate variability and change, and maintain those partnerships. The multiple activities in this regional climate assessment serve as a pilot for a broader climate services organization in the United States, and both highlight the crucial need for regional climate services and provide important lessons for implementation.

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Pavel Ya. Groisman, Eugene L. Genikhovich, and Pan-Mao Zhai

This paper is a continuation of empirical studies of cloud and snow cover effects on climate based on a blend of observational meteorological data for the past several decades. It employs the idea that the analysis of climate variability observed during the period of intensive instrumental observations can provide “overall estimates” of these effects.

A climatology of clear skies for northern extratropical lands is presented in the form of deviations from the average climate conditions. Clouds are an internal component of the climate system, and these deviations indicate specific climate conditions associated with clear skies. At the same time, they may be considered as estimates of the overall cloud effect on the regional climate. A similar approach is applied to estimate the potential effect of snow on the ground, and an attempt is made to divide the effects of snow and clouds.

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Michael A. Taylor, Abel Centella, John Charlery, Arnoldo Bezanilla, Jayaka Campbell, Israel Borrajero, Tannecia Stephenson, and Riad Nurmohamed

INFORMATION DEFICIT. A regionally formulated and implemented initiative produces dynamically downscaled climate change scenarios for the Caribbean. By the year 2000, with the help of a swing to a more active phase of hurricane activity, the interest in and awareness of climate change as a developmental issue for the Caribbean region was heightened. The vulnerability of the Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS) to climate variations was becoming evident, accompanied by a growing

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Kenneth Sassen

After reviewing the indirect evidence for the regional climatic impact of contrail-generated cirrus clouds (contrail-cirrus), the author presents a variety of new measurements indicating the nature and scope of the problem. The assessment concentrates on polarization lidar and radiometric observations of persisting contrails from Salt Lake City, Utah, where an extended Project First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program) Regional Experiment (FIRE) cirrus cloud dataset from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing has captured new information in a geographical area previously identified as being affected by relatively heavy air traffic. The following contrail properties are considered: hourly and monthly frequency of occurrence; height, temperature, and relative humidity statistics; visible and infrared radiative impacts; and microphysical content evaluated from in situ data and contrail optical phenomenon such as halos and coronas. Also presented are high-resolution lidar images of contrails from the recent SUCCESS experiment, and the results of an initial attempt to numerically simulate the radiative effects of an observed contrail. The evidence indicates that the direct radiative effects of contrails display the potential for regional climate change at many midlatitude locations, even though the sign of the climatic impact may be uncertain. However, new information suggests that the unusually small particles typical of many persisting contrails may favor the albedo cooling over the greenhouse warming effect, depending on such factors as the geographic distribution and patterns in day versus night aircraft usage.

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