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Pete Falloon, Richard Betts, Andrew Wiltshire, Rutger Dankers, Camilla Mathison, Doug McNeall, Paul Bates, and Mark Trigg

1. Introduction River flow is a useful indicator of freshwater availability, and can thus be used to evaluate likely impacts of climate change on water resources and flooding. There have been a number of studies of changes in river flow at the global scale (e.g., Arora and Boer 1999 ; Arnell 1999b , 2003 ; Hagemann and Dumenil 1998 ; Hirabayashi et al. 2008 ; Milly et al. 2005 ; Nijssen et al. 2001a , b ) using either stand-alone hydrological models driven by climate data output from

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Zhenghui Xie, Fei Yuan, Qingyun Duan, Jing Zheng, Miaoling Liang, and Feng Chen

, and topographical characteristics. For instance, Abdulla et al. (1996) and Abdulla and Lettenmaier (1997a , b ) used a family of regression equations that relate the two-layer VIC (VIC-2L) model parameters to local land surface and climatological characteristics to derive the spatial distribution of vegetation and hydrological parameters over the Arkansas–Red River basin and obtained good simulation results. In principle, one would assume that the model parameters are closely related to basin

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Daisuke Nohara, Akio Kitoh, Masahiro Hosaka, and Taikan Oki

1. Introduction Projections of precipitation and river runoff associated with climate change are important sources of information for utilization of global water resources and prevention of floods and drought ( Seckler et al. 1999 ; Vörösmarty et al. 2000 ; McCarthy et al. 2001 ; Milly et al. 2002 ; Oki et al. 2003 ; Arnell 2004 ). The development of coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) has enabled us to project future changes in precipitation and river runoff

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Hotaek Park, Yasuhiro Yoshikawa, Daqing Yang, and Kazuhiro Oshima

1. Introduction River water temperature T w is one of the most important parameters affecting freshwater biogeochemistry and the physical properties of surface water in rivers and lakes. The heating and cooling processes of T w in rivers are greatly influenced by meteorological and hydrological conditions over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The Arctic rivers are mostly ice covered during winter, with relatively stable T w values, and T w varies significantly during the ice

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Otávio C. Acevedo, Osvaldo L. L. Moraes, Rodrigo da Silva, Vagner Anabor, Daniel P. Bittencourt, Hans R. Zimmermann, Roberto O. Magnago, and Gervásio A. Degrazia

Rotach 2004 ), especially in terms of the local circulations and their impact on air quality and local microclimate. The purpose of this study is to look at a very specific surface type in a complex terrain environment (the river), and the exchanges between the river surface and the atmosphere. Rivers have an important role in the atmospheric environment of their surroundings, in many cases. They may induce local circulations ( Zhong and Takle 1992 ; Oliveira and Fitzjarrald 1994 ; Silva Dias et al

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Yundi Jiang, Wenjie Dong, Song Yang, and Jun Ma

China is more significant than that in southern China ( Sha et al. 2002 ; Zheng et al. 2002 ; Ge et al. 2003 ; Ye et al. 2003 ). The Yellow River (YR), which is mainly located between 33° and 43°N, flows from south to north from Lanzhou of Gansu Province to Hekou of Inner Mongolia, and from Zhengzhou of Henan Province to the estuary. ( Figure 1 shows the location of YR and several sites that are discussed in this study.) As a result, winter temperature is higher in the upper reach of the river

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Qiuhong Tang, Taikan Oki, Shinjiro Kanae, and Heping Hu

1. Introduction The Yellow River originates in the northern foothills of the Tibetan Plateau and empties into the Bohai Bay ( Fig. 1 ). The river length is 5500 km with a basin area of 752 000 km 2 (the watershed area is as large as 795 000 km 2 if the endoreic inner flow area is included). Most of the basin’s area is arid or semiarid. The Yellow River is the main source of surface water in northwest and northern China. As of 1997 there were 107 million inhabitants and 12.6 million hectares

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Amy Ffield

southernmost oceanic conditions experienced by more than half of all Atlantic hurricanes just prior to reaching the Caribbean Sea: 1) the spreading of freshwater discharges from the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers out into the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean, and 2) the periodic movement of North Brazil Current (NBC) rings through the river plumes. At the sea surface the freshwater discharges from the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers spread outward, forming extensive low-salinity plumes. The ∼0.2 × 10 6 m 3 s −1

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Dana R. N. Brown, Todd J. Brinkman, David L. Verbyla, Caroline L. Brown, Helen S. Cold, and Teresa N. Hollingsworth

1. Introduction In rural Alaskan communities, many of which are off the road system, people rely on rivers and lakes for travel and access to resources ( Johnson et al. 2016 ). During the summer, people navigate large waterbodies by boat or use all-terrain vehicles on a limited terrestrial trail network. However, the ability to traverse the landscape is greatly enhanced during the winter, when waterbodies, small and large, are firmly frozen and snow covers the landscape, allowing access by

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Austin S. Hudson, Stefan A. Talke, Ruth Branch, Chris Chickadel, Gordon Farquharson, and Andrew Jessup

1. Introduction The derivatives of water level in time and space ( dζ/dt and dH/dx , respectively) are fundamental variables in the shallow-water equations and help govern river flow, tidal currents, estuary circulation, and transport. However, surprisingly little effort has been made to remotely sense these quantities over tidal time scales in estuaries and tidal rivers, despite the greater spatial coverage that remote sensing approaches offer over traditional methods. While satellite

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