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B. J. Kilonsky and C. S. Ramage

with Taylor).analyses of the fields of surface salinity and evapora- Taylor's estimates, which utilized satellite data, greatly exceeded our estimates near 5-N and 10-S (Fig. 4). Taylor's maximum near 5-N was based on 2N0'[ ': ~,~\[ "] ~ [ [ ' [ J one station (Kusaie in the Carolines), and his maximum J \i~.~ ~ -x

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Zbigniew Sorbjan

in Fig. 2 of S95were averaged horizontally and in time. The described difficulties with the evaluation of hwere also encountered by Hibberd in his saline laboratory simulation of the convective boundary' layer(Hibberd and Sawford 1994). As stated on page 240in the quoted paper, "the exact height of zero flux hadto be determined by eye from preliminary calculationsfor each profile." Certainly, such a subjective approachcould also be applied in the S95 method in an attemptto reduce errors in the

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Richard W. Reynolds

measurements, and surface observations only. The first Class,henceforth called cast data, consists of oceanographicstation data (e.g., Nansen casts or salinity-temperature-depth casts) as well as expendable and mechanical bathythermograph (BT) casts. The BT's, althoughless accurate than the oceanographic station data,have typical SST accuracies of several tenths of adegree C (Tabata, 1978a). The second class, the surface marine weather data, consists of bucket, engineintake, and buoy temperatures. The

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Mark R. Jury

) = +0.5 hPa, rainfall = −1 mm day −1 , and evaporation = −0.2 mm day −1 . SLP anomalies were −2 hPa near Bermuda, but local winds around Puerto Rico were near normal. GODAS data were analyzed in the upper 100 m for sea temperature, salinity, ocean currents, and vertical motion, as well as for sea surface height and net heat flux along 18.2°N. National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) moored buoy data were analyzed at 18.25°N, 64.75°W ( Fig. 1a ), south of St. John, Virgin Islands. Automatic weather station

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Anders W. Andren and Robert C. Harriss

. Winchester, 1969: Phosphate ion en richment in drops from breaking bubbles. J. Phys. Chem, 73, 2163-2169.Mason, B. 1966: Principles of Geochemistry. New York, Wiley, 310 pp. Miyake, Y., 1948: The chemical nature of the saline matter in the g~, atmosphere. Geophys. MaD, 16, 64-65.Sugawara, K., S. Oana and T. Koyama, 1949: Separation of the components of atmospheric salt and their distribution. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan, 22, 47-52.Freezing of Supercooled Clouds Induced by Shock Waves J

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Carl N. Hodges, T. Lewis Thompson, John E. Groh, and William D. Sellers

considerations, for thetemperature of the water flowing out of the collector atany given time. A sample application will be given underconditions typical of Puerto Pefiasco in July. First,however, the complete desalinization plant will be described briefly. Further details may be obtained from aseries of reports by Hodges et al. 2 Hodges, C. N., and A. R. Kassander, Jr., 1962: I)istillationof saline water utilizing solar energy in a multiple-effect systemconsisting of separate collector, evaporator, and

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M. R. Kulkarni, B. B. Adiga, R. K. Kapoor, and V. V. Shirvaikar

and disperse through eddy diffusion. Some ofthe heavier particles return to the sea duc to gravitational settling. On. reaching the land they continueto disperse and deposit primarily due to impactionon available surfaces such as ground, leaves andstructures. On the other hand some of the particlesfrom the ground are picked up by winds. The majordissolved salts in sea water are NaC!, KCI, Na2SO4,KHCO~, Ca(NO~)2, MgSO4,. NaNO~, while the salinity of sea water ranges between 33 and 37%0 (Forsythe

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Peter Winkler and Christian E. Junge

ofKientzler and Arons (1952). Their data, given inchlorinity Cl, were converted into salinity S (~o) byapplying the equation, S=1.811Cl+0.07. The difference between these two curves is due to the fact thatfor the same relative humidity salt mixtures show higherconcentrations than solutions of pure salts (see, e.g.,Braitsch, 1962, p. 108). We also studied five differentsea salt samples, using sea water from the Atlantic (nearthe African coast, at 25-30'N, 15-W, 10 m deep) andthe Baltic (four samples at 19

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Edward N. Lorenz

obtained by treating it as a variable featureinstead. Likewise, in one hypothesis (Weyl, 1968),variations of oceanic salinity are assumed to exert theircontrol upon the amount of sea ice, which in turninfluences the atmosphere. An investigator using a modelwhere salinity is assumed constant, or, more likely,where it is disregarded altogether, even though variations of sea ice are included, could never have arrived atsuch a hypothesis. In view of the manner in which mathematical modelshave evolved

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Julie Pullen, Teddy Holt, Alan F. Blumberg, and Robert D. Bornstein

the Interstate Sanitation Commission) are used as model forcing. Salinity and temperature boundary conditions located far offshore are derived from climatological data. Each day NYHOPS produces a 24-h hindcast/nowcast and a 48-h forecast of the physical state of the marine environment ( Bruno and Blumberg 2004 ). Water level, currents, temperature, and salinity are predicted in a system in operation since late 2003. NYHOPS has been calibrated and validated for two annual cycles (i.e., 1 October

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