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Jason A. Otkin, Tonya Haigh, Anthony Mucia, Martha C. Anderson, and Christopher Hain

Salinity ( Kerr et al. 2012 ) and Soil Moisture Active Passive ( Entekhabi et al. 2010 ) are used to estimate the near-surface soil moisture content (0–5 cm) over the entire globe, albeit with much coarser horizontal resolution (~30–50 km) than vegetation datasets derived using visible and infrared satellite imagery. Recent advancements in land surface modeling and data assimilation have also led to the development of datasets that depict soil moisture content over multiple soil layers that include

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Carolina E. Roman, Amanda H. Lynch, and Dale Dominey-Howes

socioeconomic context into these assessments, they are described as more saline approaches for the advancement of concrete actions that tackle imperatives such as adaptation to processes of change more generally ( Brooks 2003 ; O’Brien et al. 2007 ). Besides, decision makers are often disinclined to make judgments in the absence of a specific context ( Lynch et al. 2008c ). Studies on successful adaptations have shown that minimizing vulnerability to climate change is one of many competing community

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Kirsten Lackstrom, Nathan P. Kettle, Benjamin Haywood, and Kirstin Dow

wind speed. Short-term weather data (hourly to daily data on temperature, precipitation, wind, etc.) are therefore used to address the above operational decisions. Seasonal decisions, such as the release of water from various impoundments, are sensitive to climate variables because management must consider streamflows and control for salinity conditions (ratio of brackish and freshwater). As such, seasonal forecasts and outlooks guide activities to maintain the appropriate streamflows and ratios of

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Benjamin Sultan, Bruno Barbier, Jeanne Fortilus, Serigne Modou Mbaye, and Grégoire Leclerc

province and support mainly millet and peanut. Clayish soils (38% of the province) are richer in micronutrients and organic matter but harder to till. They are more suited to maize and sorghum. Mixed soils ( deck dior ) cover 10% of the area and are suitable for most crops. Lithosols, which cover 6% of the area, are generally under pasture. Lowlands (6% of the area) are suitable for rice, sorghum, and vegetables during the dry season. Saline soils (3% of the area) are unsuitable for agriculture

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Jessica Kuonen, Flaxen Conway, and Ted Strub

. (2012) for exceptions]. Ocean condition forecasts include predictions of a wide array of parameters that include physical factors (e.g., current speed and direction, wave height and periodicity, water temperature at various depths), chemical factors (e.g., salinity), and biological composition (e.g., chlorophyll-A) ( Kite-Powell et al. 2008 ). Ocean condition forecasts are available on a range of time scales, and near-term forecasts with a lead time of 4 to 72 h are of particular interest to marine

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Amy Savage, Lisa Schubert, Corey Huber, Hilary Bambrick, Nina Hall, and Bill Bellotti

-hazard Department et al. 2015 ). Projected future changes include further increases in sea and air temperatures with more extremely hot days; changes in weather patterns, including greater frequency of intense rainfall; less frequent but more severe cyclones; accelerating sea level rise; and further ocean acidification ( Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-hazard Department et al. 2015 ). These changes lead to increased flooding and droughts; salinization of groundwater; coral bleaching; changing fish migrations; storm

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Kelly Helm Smith, Mark E. Burbach, Michael J. Hayes, Patrick E. Guinan, Andrew J. Tyre, Brian Fuchs, Tonya Haigh, and Mark D. Svoboda

hydrometeorological data do not describe the full picture ( Meadow et al. 2013 ). Drought impacts tend to be most frequently connected to decision-making, most thoroughly documented, and most frequently communicated in context of agriculture, water management, and firefighting ( Lackstrom et al. 2013 ). Decision-makers need regional and local information on underlying conditions contributing to drought impacts, such as the effects of coastal salinity, high evapotranspiration, long-term environmental stressors, or

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Valeria Hernandez, Vincent Moron, Florencia Fossa Riglos, and Eugenia Muzi

Argentina. Junín soils are dominated by molisols (mineral soils rich in organic matter) covering pastures suitable for agriculture activity ( Alvarez and Lavado 1998 ). Altogether, 80% of Junín’s soil is considered best for agricultural use, and the remaining area is used for livestock production (14%) or covered by lagoons (6%). In San Justo, poorly drained natracualfes (saline-sodium and sodium soils) dominate the area west of the Salado River and east of the Saladillos streams ( Fig. 1b ), In the

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