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Daniel J. Cziczo, Luis Ladino, Yvonne Boose, Zamin A. Kanji, Piotr Kupiszewski, Sara Lance, Stephan Mertes, and Heike Wex

.1 DeMott , P. J. , and Coauthors , 2015 : Integrating laboratory and field data to quantify the immersion freezing ice nucleation activity of mineral dust particles . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 15 , 393 – 409 , doi: 10.5194/acp-15-393-2015 . 10.5194/acp-15-393-2015 DeMott , P. J. , and Coauthors , 2016 : Sea spray aerosol as a unique source of INPs . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA , 113 , 5797 – 5803 , doi: 10.1073/pnas.1514034112 . 10.1073/pnas.1514034112 Diehl , K. , S. K. Mitra , M

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J. Bühl, S. Alexander, S. Crewell, A. Heymsfield, H. Kalesse, A. Khain, M. Maahn, K. Van Tricht, and M. Wendisch

southern midlatitudes on heterogeneous ice formation . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 38 , L17802 , doi: 10.1029/2011GL048532 . 10.1029/2011GL048532 Kay , J. E. , T. L’Ecuyer , A. Gettelman , G. L. Stephens , and C. O’Dell , 2008 : The contribution of cloud and radiation anomalies to the 2007 Arctic sea ice extent minimum . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 35 , L08503 , doi: 10.1029/2008GL033451 . 10.1029/2008GL033451 Klingebiel , M. , and Coauthors , 2015 : Arctic low-level boundary layer clouds

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Steven K. Krueger, Hugh Morrison, and Ann M. Fridlind

derived from MPACE observations gathered over northern Alaska and the adjacent Beaufort Sea: 1) a single-layer, boundary layer mixed-phase cloud system associated with cold air outflow from the Arctic pack ice southward across open ocean ( Klein et al. 2009 ) and 2) a deeper multilayered mixed-phase cloud system driven by midlevel mesoscale and synoptic-scale forcing as well as cold air outflow over open ocean ( Morrison et al. 2009 ). Xie et al. (2006) developed SCM and CRM large-scale forcing data

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I. Gultepe, A. J. Heymsfield, P. R. Field, and D. Axisa

. Coleman , 2009 : Ground-based passive microwave profiling during dynamic weather conditions . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 26 , 1057 – 1073 , doi: 10.1175/2008JTECHA1150.1 . 10.1175/2008JTECHA1150.1 Knuth , S. L. , G. J. Tripoli , J. E. Thom , and G. A. Weidner , 2010 : The influence of blowing snow and precipitation on snow depth change across the Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea regions of Antarctica . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 49 , 1306 – 1321 , doi: 10.1175/2010JAMC2245.1 . 10

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Russ E. Davis, Lynne D. Talley, Dean Roemmich, W. Brechner Owens, Daniel L. Rudnick, John Toole, Robert Weller, Michael J. McPhaden, and John A. Barth

of these satellite and in situ observing system elements in order to span as great a range as is practical of the temporal and spatial scales of ocean variability. Since surpassing the 3000-float plateau in 2007, the Argo array has maintained its global coverage for more than a decade, having obtained 1.8 million profiles by early 2018 ( Fig. 3-4 ) and extending spatial coverage into seasonal ice zones and marginal seas. The lifetime of floats has been extended from about 3 years initially to

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J.-L. F. Li, D. E. Waliser, G. Stephens, and Seungwon Lee

freedom unconstrained. The recent availability of the first tropospheric vertically resolved cloud radar reflectivity and derived ice/liquid profiles from CloudSat ( Austin et al. 2009 ), combined with CALIPSO ( Deng et al. 2010 , 2013 ; Delanoë and Hogan 2008 , 2010 ), provide new means for global cloud mass evaluation (e.g., Chepfer et al. 2008 ; Li et al. 2012 , 2013 ; Waliser et al. 2009 ; Chen et al. 2011 ; Jiang et al. 2012 ; Gettelman et al. 2010 ; Klein and Jakob 1999 ; Webb et

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Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Markus Petters, and Ulrike Lohmann

2008 ), sea spray ( DeMott et al. 2016 ; Wilson et al. 2015 ), and glassy secondary organic aerosols ( Ignatius et al. 2016 ; Knopf et al. 2018 ; Wang et al. 2012 ). Urban sources do not appear to contribute substantially to atmospheric INP concentrations, and pollution may lead to a degradation of ice nucleating ability ( Braham and Spyers-Duran 1974 ; J. Chen et al. 2018 ). Plausible mechanisms are the digestion of active sites by pollutants or sulfuric acid ( Sullivan et al. 2010a ; Kanji

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David A. Randall, Cecilia M. Bitz, Gokhan Danabasoglu, A. Scott Denning, Peter R. Gent, Andrew Gettelman, Stephen M. Griffies, Peter Lynch, Hugh Morrison, Robert Pincus, and John Thuburn

’s global atmospheric models are commonly coupled with ocean models, sea ice models, and land surface models that include representations of terrestrial vegetation and the carbon cycle. Because of the diversity of processes represented, it is becoming more common to refer to these large coupled models as “Earth system models (ESMs),” especially when the carbon cycle is included. In ESMs, the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land surface models are included as submodels, which can be viewed as components

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Guang J. Zhang and Xiaoliang Song

radiation calculation was specified ( Manabe et al. 1965 ). The cloud liquid water path used for determining cloud optical properties was empirically related to the moisture field (e.g., Kiehl et al. 1998 ). Thus, convection in climate models affects large-scale clouds indirectly by modulating the moisture field. This is far from how nature works. In reality, deep convection generates massive amounts of anvil clouds by detraining cloud liquid water and ice from updrafts. The radiative effect of the

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Greg M. McFarquhar, Darrel Baumgardner, Aaron Bansemer, Steven J. Abel, Jonathan Crosier, Jeff French, Phil Rosenberg, Alexei Korolev, Alfons Schwarzoenboeck, Delphine Leroy, Junshik Um, Wei Wu, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Cynthia Twohy, Andrew Detwiler, Paul Field, Andrea Neumann, Richard Cotton, Duncan Axisa, and Jiayin Dong

Software OPM Optimum parameterization method PbP Particle-by-particle PHIPS-HALO Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering Probe PIP Precipitation Imaging Probe PMS Particle Measuring Systems PVM Particle Volume Monitor RAL Research Applications Laboratory SAMAC Software for Airborne Measurements of Aerosols and Clouds SD Size distribution SEA Scientific Engineering Applications SID Small Ice Detector SODA System for OAP Data Analysis SPEC Stratton Park Engineering Company TAS True airspeed TDL

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