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Paul R. Holland, Nicolas Bruneau, Clare Enright, Martin Losch, Nathan T. Kurtz, and Ron Kwok

1. Introduction Arctic sea ice extent has declined rapidly in recent decades (−52 × 10 3 km 2 yr −1 for 1979–2010), but Antarctic sea ice extent has slowly increased (+17 × 10 3 km 2 yr −1 ) over the same period ( Cavalieri and Parkinson 2012 ; Comiso and Nishio 2008 ; Parkinson and Cavalieri 2012 ; Zwally et al. 2002 ), raising fundamental questions of why the two poles have evolved so differently in the context of climate change. The small overall Antarctic increase in ice area is

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Mitchell Bushuk, Rym Msadek, Michael Winton, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Rich Gudgel, Anthony Rosati, and Xiaosong Yang

1. Introduction The rapid loss of Arctic sea ice has the potential to influence the climate system across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. These impacts include changes in the global energy balance via the sea ice–albedo feedback ( Budyko 1969 ; Curry et al. 1995 ), potential influence on midlatitude weather ( Screen and Simmonds 2013 ), and many human-related consequences, including the livelihoods of northern communities and Arctic wildlife, the opening of trans-Arctic shipping

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J. Ono, H. Tatebe, and Y. Komuro

1. Introduction The Arctic summer sea ice extent (SIE) has markedly decreased since satellite observations began in the late 1970s. For September Arctic sea ice, the 10 lowest minimum extents have occurred since 2000 ( NSIDC 2017 ). In particular, in the summers of 2007 and 2012, extreme sea ice loss was observed. The September average SIE in 2007 and 2012 was 4.27 and 3.57 million km 2 (−2.14 and −2.84 million km 2 anomaly from the 1981–2010 average), which have been ranked as the second

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Axel J. Schweiger, Ron W. Lindsay, Steve Vavrus, and Jennifer A. Francis

1. Introduction This study is motivated by the need to understand potential linkages between sea ice and cloud cover. Sea ice extent has decreased markedly over the last few decades ( Cavalieri et al. 2003 ; Serreze et al. 2007 , 2003 ). The more recent (since 1988) decrease is thought to be the result of the combined effects of gradual warming, changes in the atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns, and the ice–albedo feedback ( Lindsay and Zhang 2005 ). Other studies implicate changes

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Zhiqiang Chen, Jiping Liu, Mirong Song, Qinghua Yang, and Shiming Xu

1. Introduction Arctic sea ice extent and thickness have experienced dramatic change in the past few decades. Sea ice extent has declined for all months since the late 1970s (e.g., Comiso 2012 ; Cavalieri and Parkinson 2012 ); that is, September ice extent has declined 13.3% decade −1 during 1979–2016, which is underestimated by most of the global climate models that participated in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) ( Stroeve et al. 2012 ). Accompanying the rapid

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Christopher M. Aiken and Matthew H. England

1. Introduction In this study we investigate the role played by Antarctic sea ice in global climate using a coupled climate model of intermediate complexity. Sea ice is an important component of the earth’s climate system, affecting both the ocean and the atmosphere by its presence and through its formation. The albedo of sea ice is substantially higher than that of the ocean, so that sea ice growth in the open ocean increases the reflection of incoming solar radiation back to space. The

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Jessica Liptak and Courtenay Strong

1. Introduction The interaction between Arctic sea ice and the atmosphere plays a large role in shaping local and hemispheric climate variability through changes in surface wind stress and turbulent heat fluxes. Physical reasoning suggests that negative sea ice anomalies locally induce upward sensible and latent heat flux anomalies, leading to decreased sea level pressure (SLP), cyclonic circulation, and surface convergence, while the opposite scenario occurs for positive sea ice anomalies. Sea

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Florence Chen, Sarah Friedman, Charles G. Gertler, James Looney, Nizhoni O’Connell, Katie Sierks, and Jerry X. Mitrovica

1. Introduction The marine isotope stage 11 (MIS11) interglacial was a period of protracted ice age warmth ~400 kyr (~400 000 yr) ago that is commonly cited as a natural laboratory for assessing the stability of polar ice sheets in the face of ongoing global warming (e.g., Hearty et al. 1999 ; Roberts et al. 2012 ). However, the peak globally averaged eustatic sea level (ESL) during MIS11 has been a matter of controversy ( Hearty et al. 1999 ; McMurtry et al. 2007 ; Hearty and Olson 2008

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Clara Deser, Robert Tomas, Michael Alexander, and David Lawrence

1. Introduction Arctic sea ice extent has declined over the past several decades, with the largest rate of retreat (∼−10% decade −1 ) in late summer ( Serreze et al. 2007 ; Comiso et al. 2008 ; Deser and Teng 2008 ; among others). The rate of decline has accelerated substantially in the past decade and now outpaces that simulated by most climate models in response to increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations ( Stroeve et al. 2007 ). The record losses of perennial Arctic sea ice in both

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Chao Li, Dirk Notz, Steffen Tietsche, and Jochem Marotzke

1. Introduction Simple models suggest that sea ice might exhibit multiple equilibria as a result of the ice–albedo feedback (e.g., Budyko 1969 ; Sellers 1969 ; North 1990 ). A possible irreversible shift of the sea ice state caused by anthropogenic climate change is of particular concern in evaluating the potential societal and environmental threat posed by future climate change, especially given the strong retreat of Arctic summer sea ice that has been observed in recent decades (e

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