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Karin van der Wiel, Sarah B. Kapnick, Gabriel A. Vecchi, James A. Smith, P. C. D. Milly, and Liwei Jia

in the current study allows us to select events by a variable very closely related to societal impacts—extreme high river discharge—and investigate the associated forcing from land and atmosphere in a physically consistent, global system. This approach is fundamentally different from a purely meteorological approach (i.e., the investigation of the rain events that have been previously linked to flood conditions), and also differs from a sequential model approach (i.e., forcing a hydrological

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Tomáš Púčik, Christopher Castellano, Pieter Groenemeijer, Thilo Kühne, Anja T. Rädler, Bogdan Antonescu, and Eberhard Faust

a probabilistic hail model to fill existing gaps in the knowledge of 1) large hail incidence, 2) the societal and economic impacts of large hail across Europe, and 3) the relationship between hail size and damage. Section 2 describes the data and methodology used to analyze hail occurrence and its impacts, section 3 discusses the spatiotemporal characteristics of large hail, section 4 deals with the relationship of hail size with the impacts and section 5 with the injuries and economic

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Peter N. Peregrine

1. Introduction This paper tests two hypotheses about social resilience to climate-related disasters using data from ancient societies. The paper is in no way unique in using archaeological data to examine the societal impact of natural disasters or mechanisms of social resilience (e.g., Cooper and Sheets 2012 ; Fisher et al. 2009 ; Hegmon et al. 2008 ; Redman 2005 ), but it is unique in doing so using cross-cultural comparison of ancient societies throughout the world. A strength of cross

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Melissa C. K. Phillips, Adam B. Cinderich, Jennifer L. Burrell, Jennifer L. Ruper, Rachel G. Will, and Scott C. Sheridan

1. Introduction Societal perceptions of climate change are often shaped by photographs, videos, eyewitness accounts, and the media ( Wilson 2000 ). The resulting perceptions that are formed include views on whether climate change is occurring, whether climate change is due to natural forces or anthropogenic forcing, and whether these changes affect the frequency, intensity, and/or duration of various natural disasters. The stances of the general public on these viewpoints can vary drastically

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Mary H. Hayden, Hannah Brenkert-Smith, and Olga V. Wilhelmi

year, but they lose their effectiveness in the summer monsoon months because of the high ambient relative humidity ( Kalkstein and Kalkstein 2010 ). 5. Discussion and recommendations Societal vulnerability is a major factor in the determination of who experiences the most severe impacts of extreme heat. Although we can forecast the physical extent of a heat wave, it is far more difficult to forecast vulnerability at a scale that will allow for targeted interventions. As this study indicates, access

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Jonghun Kam, Kimberly Stowers, and Sungyoon Kim

understanding of the generating mechanisms, less work has been completed on the social dynamics of drought and their impacts on drought management and public policy. Case studies have suggested that both awareness and risk perception of drought may impact management of and response to drought. For example, a case study of CA responses to water scarcity showed that the state’s current strategies for dealing with long or severe droughts may not be as successful as previously believed ( Christian-Smith et al

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Jose A. Algarin Ballesteros and Nathan M. Hitchens

as a mix of rain and snow but quickly changed to heavy snow and resulted in the closing of the airport for several hours. Their results showed that when the variables of snow density and the timing and duration of the strongest winds and heaviest precipitation were combined with diverse degrees of societal susceptibility, it led to disparate impacts in several locations. Robinson (1989) conducted a study on weather-related delays and cancellations at the Atlanta Hartsfield International Airport

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Alan E. Stewart, Jeffrey K. Lazo, Rebecca E. Morss, and Julie L. Demuth

analyses. This work is supported in part by NCAR’s Collaborative Program on the Societal Impacts and Economic Benefits of Weather Information (SIP), which is funded by the National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration through the U.S. Weather Research Program. NCAR is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. The views and opinions in this paper are those of the authors. APPENDIX A Items for the Weather Salience Questionnaire Subscales with Response Frequencies

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Michelle Rutty and Jean Andrey

this paper are those of the authors. REFERENCES Andrey, J. , and Knapper C. K. , 2003 : Motorists’ perceptions of and responses to weather hazards. Weather and Transportation in Canada, J. Andrey, and C. K. Knapper, Eds., Department of Geography Publication Series, No. 55, University of Waterloo, 95–118 . Becken, S. , and Wilson J. , 2013 : The impact of weather on tourist travel. Tourism Geogr., 15, 620–639 , doi:10.1080/14616688.2012.762541 . Canadian Ski Council , 2009 : 2008

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Andrew J. Monaghan, Daran L. Rife, James O. Pinto, Christopher A. Davis, and John R. Hannan

1. Introduction a. Background Diurnally varying low-level jets (LLJs) occur in many regions across the planet ( Stensrud 1996 ). However, examining the causality, frequency, and impacts of these phenomena with a comprehensive and global approach has not been possible until now because of the coarse spatial (>100 km) and temporal (6-hourly) resolution of existing global reanalyses. The companion paper to this study ( Rife et al. 2010 , hereafter R10 ) introduced a new hourly, 40-km global

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