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Daniele Iudicone, Sabrina Speich, Gurvan Madec, and Bruno Blanke

1. Introduction According to de Santillana and von Dechend (1992) , some ancient cosmogonies consider the existence of a “mother fountain of all the waters of the world” (that is a confluence of all the existing waters, which rise and return there after completing their courses) and, interestingly, locate this fountain in the Southern Ocean. In the more recent classical “global conveyor belt” picture of the global ocean circulation, the nucleus is instead in the North Atlantic Ocean and

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Adele K. Morrison, Matthew H. England, and Andrew McC. Hogg

1. Introduction Broad-scale patterns in high-latitude Southern Ocean temperature and salinity trends have emerged in the observations over recent decades. Despite warming atmospheric temperature and enhanced heat flux entering the upper ocean, the sea surface temperature (SST) south of 50°S has cooled ( Bintanja et al. 2013 ; Latif et al. 2013 ). Durack and Wijffels (2010) have shown freshening of the sea surface salinity (SSS) extending across the same region. In contrast, in the abyssal

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William R. Hobbs, Christopher Roach, Tilla Roy, Jean-Baptiste Sallée, and Nathaniel Bindoff

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean has a disproportionally large impact on the global climate system through its prominent role in the ocean uptake of anthropogenic heat and carbon ( Rintoul and Church 2002 ). Consistent with observation-based estimates, models indicate that the Southern Ocean south of 30°S was responsible for 43% ± 3% of global ocean anthropogenic CO 2 uptake from 1861 to 2005, and 75% ± 22% of anthropogenic heat uptake over the same period ( Frolicher et al. 2015 ); since

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Andrew McC. Hogg, Paul Spence, Oleg A. Saenko, and Stephanie M. Downes

1. Introduction The circulation of the Southern Ocean is characterized by strong eastward zonal flow [the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC)]. The baroclinic component of the ACC is associated with isopycnal layers that slope up toward the surface in the south, thereby connecting the deep and abyssal ocean with surface waters ( Morrison et al. 2015 ). This isopycnal slope is maintained in part by the strong westerly wind stress at the surface and provides a conduit by which deep, dense water

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James A. Screen, Nathan P. Gillett, David P. Stevens, Gareth J. Marshall, and Howard K. Roscoe

1. Introduction The southern annular mode (SAM) is the dominant mode of extratropical atmospheric variability in the Southern Hemisphere ( Thompson and Wallace 2000 ; Marshall et al. 2004 ). Southern Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) respond to the SAM through a combination of modified surface currents and atmosphere–ocean heat fluxes ( Hall and Visbeck 2002 ; Verdy et al. 2006 ; Sen Gupta and England 2006 ; Ciasto and Thompson 2008 ). During the positive phase of the SAM, stronger

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Jiping Liu, Tingyin Xiao, and Liqi Chen

critical than the convectively active Southern Ocean. The Southern Ocean is the crossroad of the global ocean’s water mass, connecting the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans as well as the deep ocean to the surface (e.g., Gordon 1988 ; White and Peterson 1996 ; Lumpkin and Speer 2007 ; Mayewski et al. 2009 ). The Southern Ocean hosts the climatologically strongest sea surface winds in the world, which drive the deep and vigorous Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC; e.g., Rintoul et al. 2001

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Yueng-Djern Lenn and Teresa K. Chereskin

1. Introduction Circumpolar integration of the Southern Ocean Ekman transport results in estimates ranging from 25 to 30 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 10 6 m 3 s −1 ; Sloyan and Rintoul 2001 ; Speer et al. 2000 ). The Ekman layer thus constitutes the shallowest limb of the meridional overturning circulation of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), a key component of the coupled ocean–atmosphere climate system ( Deacon 1937 ; Sloyan and Rintoul 2001 ; Speer et al. 2000 ). Despite the large transport

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Matthew R. Mazloff, Raffaele Ferrari, and Tapio Schneider

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean (SO) plays a crucial role in transforming and transporting ocean water masses. The Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans are connected through the SO, and no description of the global ocean circulation is complete without a full understanding of this region. One wishes to understand the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) system, the polar gyres, and the meridional overturning circulation (MOC), which are linked as they represent branches of the three

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Mads B. Poulsen, Markus Jochum, James R. Maddison, David P. Marshall, and Roman Nuterman

et al. 1991 ; Ivchenko et al. 1996 ; Olbers 1998 ). This process is fundamental to the dynamics of the Southern Ocean as it causes a net downward momentum transfer which permits a governing momentum balance between surface wind stress and topographic form drag across shallow ridges and continents ( Munk and Palmén 1951 ; Masich et al. 2015 ). For adiabatic and geostrophic eddies the zonal eddy form stress additionally induces a meridional circulation that compensates Southern Ocean wind

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Jesse M. Cusack, J. Alexander Brearley, Alberto C. Naveira Garabato, David A. Smeed, Kurt L. Polzin, Nick Velzeboer, and Callum J. Shakespeare

1. Introduction The wind represents the largest energy source to the large-scale quasigeostrophic (QG) ocean circulation, providing 0.7–1 TW of work ( Wunsch 1998 ; Scott and Xu 2009 ). More than 60% of this takes place in the Southern Ocean, where the time-mean wind work on the QG flow often exceeds 10 mW m −2 locally ( Hughes and Wilson 2008 ). Wind stress, in combination with atmospheric buoyancy forcing and dynamical instabilities, leads to the emergence of the Antarctic Circumpolar

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