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Eun Young Kwon, Curtis Deutsch, Shang-Ping Xie, Sunke Schmidtko, and Yang-Ki Cho

, circulation, and/or respiration (e.g., Deutsch et al. 2005 , 2006 ) accentuated by the decadal residence time of the thermocline circulation ( Ito and Deutsch 2010 ). Improved understanding of the supply mechanism and its relationship to climate variations will help us better understand observed O 2 changes. As a result of strong stratification within the North Pacific, convection is restricted to relatively shallow depths (usually <250 m; e.g., Suga et al. 2004 ), and the ventilation of deeper layers

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N. J. Burls and A. V. Fedorov

subsurface water in the equatorial and coastal upwelling regions, decreasing the zonal SST gradient ( Fig. 5d ). Consequently, the mean intensity of the atmospheric Walker circulation ( Fig. 6a ) and the easterly trade winds together with the zonal slope of the equatorial thermocline ( Fig. 5d ) all decrease in response to a reduction of extratropical cloud albedo. Similarly, the strength of the Hadley circulation decreases together with the meridional SST gradient ( Fig. 6b ). This reduction in the

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Paola Cessi, Christopher L. Wolfe, and Bonnie C. Ludka

/homogenized thermocline ( Stommel and Webster 1962 ; Young and Ierley 1986 ; Salmon 1990 ; Samelson and Vallis 1997 ). However, this framework is appropriate only in the subtropical regions where there is downward Ekman pumping. In the subpolar region, where the maximum of the Eulerian overturning circulation is found, the depth of the thermocline cannot be determined by ventilation: either diffusion (e.g., in the mixed layer) or remote processes must control the dynamics. All of the above theories neglect the

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Willem P. Sijp and Matthew H. England

1. Introduction The geometry of the World Ocean is characterized by zonal boundaries interrupted only at the latitudes of the Drake Passage (DP). This semicompartmental distribution of water allows the development of distinct thermocline properties in each basin. In particular, thermocline water of the Atlantic Ocean is more saline than its Pacific counterpart (e.g., Levitus 1982 ). This remarkable feature is fundamental to the ocean’s thermohaline circulation (THC; e.g., Gordon 1986

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Sijia Zou, M. Susan Lozier, and Xiaobiao Xu

1. Introduction The upper limb of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) transports warm, saline waters northward in the upper layer to the subpolar/subarctic North Atlantic, where they are transformed into cold, fresh waters that flow southward in the deep limb. Due to its role in redistributing heat, freshwater, and carbon, the AMOC and its variability have significant impacts on the Earth climate system, including European climate ( Stouffer et al. 2006 ), North Atlantic

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Wei Liu, Zhengyu Liu, and Esther C. Brady

the Atlantic ( Fig. 5b ). It is this increased upper-ocean salinity that is transported northward by the upper limb of the mean AMOC (upper 1000 m, Fig. 5b ), corresponding to an equivalent freshwater export to the south and therefore enhanced M ovS export in ADJ (relative to CTL). This relationship between the tropical bias and the M ovS export should be robust because it is determined by the thermocline circulation of tropical–extratropical exchange ( Liu et al. 1994 ) in the South Atlantic

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Motoki Nagura and Shinya Kouketsu

.1175/1520-0485(1993)023<1315:ITSRAP>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0485(1993)023<1315:ITSRAP>2.0.CO;2 McDonagh , E. L. , H. L. Bryden , B. A. King , R. J. Sanders , S. A. Cunningham , and R. Marsh , 2005 : Decadal changes in the South Indian Ocean thermocline . J. Climate , 18 , 1575 – 1590 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3350.1 . 10.1175/JCLI3350.1 Nagura , M. , and M. J. McPhaden , 2018 : The shallow overturning circulation in the Indian Ocean . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 48 , 413 – 434 , https://doi.org/10

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Ada Gjermundsen, Joseph H. LaCasce, and Liv Denstad

– 2692 , https://doi.org/10.1029/90JC02422 . 10.1029/90JC02422 Robinson , A. , and H. Stommel , 1959 : The oceanic thermocline and the associated thermohaline circulation . Tellus , 11 , 295 – 308 , https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2153-3490.1959.tb00035.x . Saenko , O. A. , 2009 : On the climatic impact of wind stress . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 39 , 89 – 106 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JPO3981.1 . 10.1175/2008JPO3981.1 Saenko , O. A. , and W. Merryfield , 2005 : On the effect of

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Darryn W. Waugh, Andrew McC. Hogg, Paul Spence, Matthew H. England, and Thomas W. N. Haine

along- or across-isopycnal transport. We first examine the possibility that the wind stress perturbations lead to a change in the strength of the mean horizontal circulation, which in turn leads to a changes in along-isopycnal transport and ages within the thermocline. Changes in the horizontal circulation in the perturbation simulations are examined using the (depth-integrated) barotropic streamfunction (BSF), which is a commonly used indicator of the horizontal subtropical gyre circulation. A

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Magnus Hieronymus, Johan Nilsson, and Jonas Nycander

blend their properties. As the salinity and temperature affect the density, their distributions are coupled in a nonlinear fashion to the ocean circulation. This fact makes the theory of the large-scale ocean circulation a challenging problem, but it also provides some constraints on the oceanic density distribution. These general constraints have been examined and exploited in dynamical oceanography. One prominent example is the theory of the ventilated thermocline ( Welander 1959 ; Luyten et al

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