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Sanaa Hobeichi, Gab Abramowitz, and Jason Evans

the adjustments made to one budget affect the nature of adjustments made to the components of the other budget. For example, over the Amazon, there are large water and energy imbalances in June and July, caused by an excess of Q + ET + Δ S and R n , respectively. The energy balance enforcement is achieved after a decline in R n accompanied by an increase in H and G . On the other hand, the water balance is achieved after a significant increase in P accompanied by a decrease in Q and Δ

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David M. W. Pritchard, Nathan Forsythe, Hayley J. Fowler, Greg M. O’Donnell, and Xiao-Feng Li

temporal patterns of precipitation variability and atmospheric water transport ( Maussion et al. 2014 ; Curio et al. 2015 ; Curio and Scherer 2016 ). The HAR has also been employed to successfully provide offline meteorological forcing data for models of glacier mass balance and hydrology ( Huintjes et al. 2015 ; Biskop et al. 2016 ; Tarasova et al. 2016 ), as well as to examine the connection between midlatitude westerlies and glacier mass balance in monsoonal parts of the region ( Mölg et al

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J. E. Jack Reeves Eyre and Xubin Zeng

^ variability. Fig . 3. Correlation coefficients at (left) monthly, (center) seasonal, and (right) annual time scales between discharge observed at Óbidos (multiplied by 1.25 for the Amazon, although this does not affect the correlation) and discharge estimated from water balance: R ^ . Each point represents one combination of water budget terms: some are highlighted, as shown in the legend. Note that, within each plot and basin, points have been randomly displaced left and right to aid legibility. The

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Paul A. Dirmeyer, Timothy DelSole, and Mei Zhao

. , 1998 : The observed mean annual cycle of moisture budgets over the central United States . J. Climate , 11 , 2180 – 2190 . Ruane, A. C. , and Roads J. O. , 2008 : Dominant balances and exchanges of the atmospheric water cycle in the Reanalysis 2 at diurnal, annual, and intraseasonal time scales . J. Climate , 21 , 3951 – 3966 . Trenberth, K. E. , and Guillemot C. J. , 1998 : Evaluation of the atmospheric moisture and hydrologic cycle in the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses . Climate Dyn

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Spencer K. Clark, Yi Ming, Isaac M. Held, and Peter J. Phillipps

examples above demonstrate the importance of the treatment of physical processes in setting the sensitivity of the ITCZ position to hemispherically asymmetric perturbations. In the context of radiation and the energy budget of the atmosphere, clouds and water vapor are the two most important spatially heterogeneous factors to consider ( Hartmann 2016 ). In terms of physical processes, previous studies have either included both cloud and water vapor radiative feedbacks, by using comprehensive aquaplanet

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Enrique Rosero, Lindsey E. Gulden, Zong-Liang Yang, Luis G. De Goncalves, Guo-Yue Niu, and Yasir H. Kaheil

1. Introduction Among the components of the water balance, runoff has arguably the greatest importance for society. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified the vulnerability of freshwater resources to climate change and highlighted the need for increased capacity to model runoff processes at high-resolution (catchment scale) within the land surface models (LSMs) that are linked to climate models ( Bates et al. 2008 ). Such improvements, combined with more extensive, high

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Sujay V. Kumar, David M. Mocko, Shugong Wang, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, and Jordan Borak

ground area, essentially represents the potential surface area available for photosynthesis. As a variable that controls the carbon, energy, and water balance in plants ( Cowling and Field 2003 ), LAI is a key parameter in models of land surface and phenology. Most modern (third generation) LSMs include formulations of LAI, either as a parameterization based on vegetation type or prescribed from climatological values ( Sellers et al. 1997 ; Pitman 2003 ). The further development of submodels of

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Li Zhang, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Jiangfeng Wei, Zhichang Guo, and Cheng-Hsuan Lu

from the surface downward). Compared to the OSU scheme, it contains improved treatment of frozen soil, ground heat flux, and energy–water balance at the surface, along with reformulated infiltration and runoff functions and an upgraded vegetation fraction. The initial atmospheric conditions and initial land states for Noah are taken from the NCEP–Department of Energy (DOE) Second Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP-II) reanalysis ( Kanamitsu et al. 2002 ). A set of complimentary

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Youlong Xia, David M. Mocko, Shugong Wang, Ming Pan, Sujay V. Kumar, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Helin Wei, Dagang Wang, and Michael B. Ek

with those (5%–25% of mean annual precipitation for multiple global river basins) found in Sahoo et al. (2011) , as there may be larger errors for grid points than for the basin average. This may be a partial reason for the conflicting information available for evaluating different variables, as the water balance is not preserved between the various evaluation reference datasets. Fig . 13. Relative imbalance error of the (a) water and (b) energy budget. It is relative to mean annual precipitation

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Claudio Cassardo, Seon Ki Park, Bindu Malla Thakuri, Daniela Priolo, and Ying Zhang

redistribution of precipitation into evaporation, soil storage, groundwater recharge, or runoff; and its regulation of biogeochemical cycles with processes such as photosynthesis and respiration. The latent heat flux is an important term governing the surface energy balance in the presence of water, because it links the energy and water budgets. In fact, latent heat flux represents the energy needed for the evapotranspiration process, which originates both from the evaporation of the bare soil and from the

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