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Tapio Schneider, Karen L. Smith, Paul A. O’Gorman, and Christopher C. Walker

, P. Kållberg , and P. Undén , 1999 : Stratospheric water vapour and tropical tropopause temperatures in ECMWF analyses and multi-year simulations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 125 , 353 – 386 . Soden , B. J. , 1998 : Tracking upper tropospheric water vapor radiances: A satellite perspective. J. Geophys. Res. , 103D , 17069 – 17081 . Sudradjat , A. , R. R. Ferraro , and M. Fiorino , 2005 : A comparison of total precipitable water between reanalyses and NVAP. J

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Alain Roberge, John R. Gyakum, and Eyad H. Atallah

1. Introduction Intense precipitation during the cold season on the North American west coast is believed to often be caused by poleward-traveling extratropical cyclones ( Lackmann and Gyakum 1999 ). The amount of water vapor and heat transported is so important that it may cause significant flooding in the mountains ( Colle and Mass 2000 ; Neiman et al. 2002 ; Ralph et al. 2006 ). This is caused by the combination of intense orographic precipitation and fast snowmelt, which may also initiate

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Andreas Behrendt, Volker Wulfmeyer, Thorsten Schaberl, Hans-Stefan Bauer, Christoph Kiemle, Gerhard Ehret, Cyrille Flamant, Susan Kooi, Syed Ismail, Richard Ferrare, Edward V. Browell, and David N. Whiteman

: First lidar measurements of water vapour and aerosols from a high-altitude aircraft. OSA Tech. Digest, Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere Paper ThA4, 212–214 . Browell, E. V. , and Coauthors , 1997 : LASE validation experiment. Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann et al., Eds., Springer Verlag, 289–295 . Bruneau, D. , Cazeneuve H. , Loth C. , and Pelon J. , 1991 : Double-pulse dual-wavelength alexandrite laser for atmospheric water vapor measurement

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Harald Sodemann

1. Introduction Water in the atmosphere is key for many feedbacks in the climate system. The atmospheric water reservoir is continuously depleted and replenished by precipitation and evaporation. A fundamentally relevant quantity of this system is the actual time that water molecules spend in the atmosphere between evaporation and precipitation, termed here the atmospheric lifetime of water vapor , or simply lifetime , often also referred to as the residence time of water vapor ( Trenberth

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Thierry Leblanc, I. Stuart McDermid, and Robin A. Aspey

1. Introduction Water vapor has long been identified as a key constituent of the atmosphere. Because of its particular shape, the water vapor molecule strongly absorbs infrared radiation and consequently water vapor constitutes a primary greenhouse gas. Studies have reported (e.g., de Forster and Shine 1999 ) that a global increase in lower-stratospheric H 2 O mixing ratio, similar to that observed locally since 1981 ( Oltmans and Hofmann 1995 ), would contribute to a surface warming reaching

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Zhongyin Cai and Lide Tian

; Trenberth 1997 ). In general, the warm phase (El Niño) of ENSO triggers the weakening of the Walker circulation and drier conditions in the western Pacific and South Asia. In contrast, the cold phase (La Niña) is marked by stronger rainfall in these regions. In addition, water vapor from the Indian Ocean is the major source of summer [June–September (JJAS)] monsoonal rainfall, which dominates the precipitation pattern in southeastern Asia (e.g., An et al. 2015 ; Ding and Chan 2005 ; Wang and LinHo

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Natalie Teale and David A. Robinson

precipitation days decreased alongside an increase in very heavy precipitation over the past 30 years. These results indicate that the precipitation regime of the region is changing. One potential explanation for the changing Northeast precipitation regime is a change in the magnitude of water vapor delivered to the region. Precipitation is dependent on an atmospheric moisture source to condense and precipitate. Warmer temperatures, such as those observed and projected in models of anthropogenic global

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Jing Feng and Yi Huang

1. Introduction Despite its scarcity, stratospheric water vapor is an important atmospheric composition because of its radiative and chemical effects. It radiatively cools the stratosphere but potentially warms the troposphere and surface ( Dvortsov and Solomon 2001 ; Dessler et al. 1995 ; Huang et al. 2016 ). It also may affect total ozone loss rate through several chemical processes ( Anderson et al. 2012 ). However, current satellite observations have limited ability to detect

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David R. Brooks, Forrest M. Mims III, and Richard Roettger

1. Introduction Of all the earth’s greenhouse gases, both anthropogenic and natural, water vapor is the most important. However, the global distribution and variability of total precipitable atmospheric water vapor (PW) is still significantly uncertain. A summary of current knowledge of PW and techniques used to measure it can be found in a report published by the American Geophysical Union ( Mockler 1995 ). Space-based measurements are critical for global monitoring of PW. However, as with

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Syed Ismail, Richard A. Ferrare, Edward V. Browell, Gao Chen, Bruce Anderson, Susan A. Kooi, Anthony Notari, Carolyn F. Butler, Sharon Burton, Marta Fenn, Jason P. Dunion, Gerry Heymsfield, T. N. Krishnamurti, and Mrinal K. Biswas

turn can influence cloud microphysics, latent heat release, vertical transport and convection development, and precipitation. Fields of water vapor concentration are a key component for understanding processes of precipitation, evaporation, and latent heat release in cloud systems. The lack of adequate and accurate moisture measurements with sufficient vertical and horizontal resolutions limits the ability of most numerical models to represent these processes. Krishnamurti et al. (1994) found

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