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Justin Sheffield, Suzana J. Camargo, Rong Fu, Qi Hu, Xianan Jiang, Nathaniel Johnson, Kristopher B. Karnauskas, Seon Tae Kim, Jim Kinter, Sanjiv Kumar, Baird Langenbrunner, Eric Maloney, Annarita Mariotti, Joyce E. Meyerson, J. David Neelin, Sumant Nigam, Zaitao Pan, Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas, Richard Seager, Yolande L. Serra, De-Zheng Sun, Chunzai Wang, Shang-Ping Xie, Jin-Yi Yu, Tao Zhang, and Ming Zhao

half of twentieth century, mostly during 1950–80 ( Vose et al. 2005 ). Changes in cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor, soil moisture, and other factors account for 25%–50% of the diurnal temperature range (DTR) reduction ( Dai et al. 1999 ). Cloud cover, soil moisture, precipitation, and atmospheric/oceanic teleconnections account for up to 80% of regional variance over 1901–2002. Over the United States, cloud cover alone accounts for up to 63% of regional annual DTR variability ( Lauritsen and

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Zaitao Pan, Xiaodong Liu, Sanjiv Kumar, Zhiqiu Gao, and James Kinter

.1029/2010GL046270 . Collins , M. , S. F. B. Tett , and C. Cooper , 2001 : The internal climate variability of HadCM3, a version of the Hadley Centre coupled model without flux adjustments . Climate Dyn. , 17 , 61 – 81 . Dai , A. , K. E. Trenberth , and T. R. Karl , 1999 : Effects of clouds, soil moisture, precipitation, and water vapor on diurnal temperature range . J. Climate , 12 , 2451 – 2473 . Donner , L. J. , and Coauthors , 2011 : The dynamical core, physical

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Hailong Liu, Chunzai Wang, Sang-Ki Lee, and David Enfield

– 1672 . Huang , B. , P. S. Schopf , and J. Shukla , 2004 : Intrinsic ocean–atmosphere variability of the tropical Atlantic Ocean . J. Climate , 17 , 2058 – 2077 . Hurrell , J. W. , 1995 : Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: Regional temperatures and precipitation . Science , 269 , 676 – 679 . Jiang , J. H. , and Coauthors , 2012 : Evaluation of cloud and water vapor simulations in CMIP5 climate models using NASA “A-Train” satellite observations . J. Geophys. Res

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