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G. Wolf, A. Czaja, D. J. Brayshaw, and N. P. Klingaman

source (e.g., Smith et al. 2017 ). These discrepancies highlight the necessity to further investigate and understand the atmospheric wave response to variability in sea surface temperatures and sea ice. It is difficult to isolate the atmospheric response to changes in sea ice due to the many other influences on the atmospheric circulation, as well as a low signal-to-noise-ratio ( Screen et al. 2014 ). Regarding this aspect, Luo et al. (2019) highlighted the importance of the weakened north

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Xichen Li, David M. Holland, Edwin P. Gerber, and Changhyun Yoo

play a key role in channeling wave activity from the Atlantic and Pacific to West Antarctica. The outline of this paper is as follows: The tropical SST trend is estimated in section 2 , which is then used to force the atmospheric models. Results from the CAM4 comprehensive atmospheric model simulations are presented in section 3 , followed by results from the GFDL dry-dynamical core simulations in section 4 , and those from the theoretical model in section 5 . Conclusions are drawn in section

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Yixiong Lu, Tongwen Wu, Weihua Jie, Adam A. Scaife, Martin B. Andrews, and Jadwiga H. Richter

Center Atmospheric General Circulation Model (BCC-AGCM). The paper is organized as follows. We describe the model and experiments, analysis methods, and datasets in section 2 . Section 3 presents characteristics of the simulated QBO and compares them with observations. Based on a realistic QBO simulation, detailed analyses of resolved large-scale waves and parameterized GWs that force the QBO are shown in section 4 . A summary and discussions are presented in section 5 . 2. Model, experiments

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Hyodae Seo, Markus Jochum, Raghu Murtugudde, Arthur J. Miller, and John O. Roads

-frequency atmospheric response to TIW-induced SST. 4. Summary and discussion Ocean–atmosphere covariability arising in the presence of tropical instability waves (TIWs) was examined using a regionally coupled high-resolution climate model in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. One of the goals of the present study was to study the impact of the atmospheric wind response on the TIWs. Two mechanisms by which atmospheric wind fields feed back onto TIWs are a direct exchange of momentum and through a modification of wind

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Carlos F. M. Raupp, Pedro L. Silva Dias, Esteban G. Tabak, and Paul Milewski

of small nonlinear terms in the theory of ocean waves; it has then been applied to a wide range of problems in physics. A rich and complete discussion on resonant triad interaction among dispersive waves can be found in Bretherton (1964) in his analysis of a simple wave equation “forced” by a quadratic term. With regard to the equatorial atmospheric waves, most of the theoretical studies on their nonlinear dynamics are based on the shallow-water equations with the equatorial β -plane

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Kyle MacRitchie and Paul E. Roundy

1. Introduction Convectively coupled atmospheric Kelvin waves (hereafter “Kelvin waves”) form a substantial part of the subscale anatomy of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Zhang 2005 ; Madden and Julian 1994 ). The MJO modulates the background state of the atmosphere through which Kelvin waves travel, thereby allowing it to influence their structures and propagation. Within the local active convective phase of the MJO (hereafter just “active MJO”), Kelvin waves tend to propagate more

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Cory Baggett, Sukyoung Lee, and Steven Feldstein

; Kump and Pollard 2008 ; Walsh et al. 2008 ). Apart from the above processes, an additional atmospheric pathway that can produce Arctic amplification has been proposed recently. The tropically excited Arctic warming (TEAM) mechanism hypothesizes that localized tropical convection near the Maritime Continent can amplify planetary-scale wave (PSW) activity, which leads to enhanced poleward sensible and latent heat transports into the Arctic. As a result of these transports, downward infrared

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Noboru Nakamura and Abraham Solomon

flow adjustments in the atmospheric general circulation Part I: Quasigeostrophic theory and analysis . J. Atmos. Sci. , 67 , 3967 – 3983 . Nakamura , N. , and D. Zhu , 2010 : Finite-amplitude wave activity and diffusive flux of potential vorticity in eddy–mean flow interaction . J. Atmos. Sci. , 67 , 2701 – 2716 . Pedlosky , J. , 1964 : The stability of currents in the atmosphere and the ocean: Part II . J. Atmos. Sci. , 21 , 342 – 353 . Pfeffer , R. L. , 1987 : Comparison of

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Maarten H. P. Ambaum

: Bimodality of the planetary-scale atmospheric wave amplitude index. J. Atmos. Sci. , 62 , 2528 – 2541 . Christiansen , B. , 2005b : The shortcomings of nonlinear principal component analysis in identifying circulation regimes. J. Climate , 18 , 4814 – 4823 . Corti , S. , F. Molteni , and T. N. Palmer , 1999 : Signature of recent climate change in frequencies of natural atmospheric circulation regimes. Nature , 398 , 799 – 802 . Ek , N. R. , and G. E. Swaters , 1994

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Mi-Kyung Sung, Seon-Hwa Kim, Baek-Min Kim, and Yong-Sang Choi

this, it is worth noticing the studies addressing the atmospheric energy transport from outside of the Arctic. While the direct impact of reduced sea ice tends to appear in the lowermost part of the atmosphere, the Arctic temperature change is observed above the surface layer as well ( Graversen et al. 2008 ). Recent studies identify a considerable contribution of the heat and moisture transport in the Arctic warming through atmospheric wave response, and it accounts for the observed Arctic thermal

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