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Andreas Schlueter, Andreas H. Fink, and Peter Knippertz

computed from the surface to the top of the model domain (0.1 hPa) and were provided by the ECMWF. The daily interpolated National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) OLR dataset ( Liebmann and Smith 1996 ) was used to filter the waves following the methods applied in Part I . OLR has the advantage that it is available for a relatively long period. Consistent with Part I , the time period spans from 1981 to 2013. The precipitation patterns associated with each wave band are discussed in

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Gabriel Wolf and Volkmar Wirth

. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 41 , 2979 – 2987 , doi: 10.1002/2014GL059282 . 10.1002/2014GL059282 Grazzini , F. , and G. van der Grijn , 2002 : Central European floods during summer 2002. ECMWF Newsletter , No. 96, ECMWF, Reading, United Kingdom, 18–28. Grazzini , F. , and F. Vitart , 2015 : Atmospheric predictability and Rossby wave packets . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 141 , 2793 – 2802 , doi: 10.1002/qj.2564 . 10.1002/qj.2564 Hoskins , B. J. , 1975 : The geostrophic momentum

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Marlene Baumgart, Michael Riemer, Volkmar Wirth, Franziska Teubler, and Simon T. K. Lang

analysis and deterministic forecast data from the Atmospheric Model high-resolution 10-day forecast (HRES) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Error growth is analyzed for the forecast starting at 0000 UTC 12 November 2013. 1 This forecast covers an extreme precipitation event over Sardinia on 18–19 November 2013, which was closely connected with the preceding Rossby wave packet, wave breaking, and the formation of a cutoff low. The error growth within this Rossby wave

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Julia H. Keller, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, Heather M. Archambault, Lance Bosart, James D. Doyle, Jenni L. Evans, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Kyle Griffin, Patrick A. Harr, Naoko Kitabatake, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Florian Pantillon, Julian F. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Ryan D. Torn, and Fuqing Zhang

.1175/MWR-D-17-0219.1 Riboldi , J. , C. M. Grams , M. Riemer , and H. M. Archambault , 2019 : A phase locking perspective on Rossby wave amplification and atmospheric blocking downstream of recurving western North Pacific tropical cyclones . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 147 , 567 – 589 , https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-18-0271.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-18-0271.1 Riemer , M. , and S. C. Jones , 2010 : The downstream impact of tropical cyclones on a developing baroclinic wave in idealized scenarios of

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Tobias Selz, Lotte Bierdel, and George C. Craig

) for making COSMO-DE analyses and ERA5 data available. The authors are grateful to three anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments. REFERENCES Achatz , U. , B. Ribstein , F. Senf , and R. Klein , 2017 : The interaction between synoptic-scale balanced flow and a finite-amplitude mesoscale wave field throughout all atmospheric layers: Weak and moderately strong stratification . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 143 , 342 – 361 , https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2926 . 10.1002/qj.2926

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Joaquim G. Pinto, Florian Pantillon, Patrick Ludwig, Madeleine-Sophie Déroche, Giovanni Leoncini, Christoph C. Raible, Len C. Shaffrey, and David B. Stephenson

consistent catalog of exceptional, high-impact windstorms for Iberia, which lead to both wind and rainfall extremes. Extreme events were also the focus of the keynote by Helen Dacre (University of Reading), who reported on advances in the understanding of the relationship between warm conveyor belts and atmospheric rivers ( Dacre et al. 2019 ). She showed the importance of low-level cyclone airflow, known as the feeder airstream, which originates ahead of the cyclone and flows rearward toward the cyclone

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Julian F. Quinting and Christian M. Grams

.: Comput. Stat. , 2 , 370 – 374 , https://doi.org/10.1002/wics.84 . 10.1002/wics.84 Altenhoff , A. M. , O. Martius , M. Croci-Maspoli , C. Schwierz , and H. C. Davies , 2008 : Linkage of atmospheric blocks and synoptic-scale Rossby waves: A climatological analysis . Tellus , 60A , 1053 – 1063 , https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0870.2008.00354.x . 10.1111/j.1600-0870.2008.00354.x Baumgart , M. , M. Riemer , V. Wirth , F. Teubler , and S. T. K. Lang , 2018 : Potential

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Mirjam Hirt, Stephan Rasp, Ulrich Blahak, and George C. Craig

field at all model levels. Most importantly, the amplitudes of the perturbations are scaled by physical information on the subgrid variance computed in the turbulence parameterization. This links the perturbation strength to the physical processes that cause small-scale turbulence. Furthermore, this enables the scheme to adapt to different atmospheric situations. The PSP scheme showed promising results in a range of case studies ( Kober and Craig 2016 ). Under weak synoptic forcing, the

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Tobias Selz, Lucas Fischer, and George C. Craig

1. Introduction The complex interaction of water vapor with atmospheric motion and mixing processes over a wide range of spatial scales, together with various sinks and sources, leads to a very heterogeneous humidity distribution in the troposphere. A better understanding of the spatial variability of water vapor in the free troposphere is essential for the representation of clouds, including fractional cloud cover, in numerical weather prediction models (NWP) and global circulation models (GCM

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Joël Arnault, Thomas Rummler, Florian Baur, Sebastian Lerch, Sven Wagner, Benjamin Fersch, Zhenyu Zhang, Noah Kerandi, Christian Keil, and Harald Kunstmann

1. Introduction Numerical atmospheric models generally consider terrestrial hydrological processes as only being vertical, in order to estimate the surface heat fluxes for constraining the atmospheric lower boundary condition. This is, for example, the case for the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model ( Skamarock and Klemp 2008 ) coupled with the Noah land surface model (LSM; Chen and Dudhia 2001 ). In this approach, the lateral redistribution of soil moisture according to the

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