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Robert A. Houze Jr.

, 2006b : High winds generated by bow echoes. Part II: The relationship between the mesovortices and damaging straight-line winds. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 134 , 2813 – 2829 . Wallace , J. M. , and P. V. Hobbs , 2006 : Atmospheric Science: An Introductory Survey . 2nd ed. Academic Press, 483 pp . Webster , P. J. , and H-R. Chang , 1997 : Atmospheric wave propagation in heterogeneous flow: Basic flow constraints on tropical-extratropical interaction and equatorial wave modification. Dyn

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Huw C. Davies

w = 0 ( Davies-Jones 2009 ), and in that study the accompanying dynamical adjustment is characterized by inertial waves. The restriction to horizontal motion singles out inertial waves as a mechanism for adjustment, whereas in realized atmospheric flow the contribution of inertia buoyancy could be, and conceivably is, more significant. Here the objective is to explore the value of a conventional R vector in examining the space–time output of NWP models. In particular emphasis is directed to

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David M. Schultz and Philip N. Schumacher

1. Introduction Single- and multiple-banded [hereafter, banded ( Huschke 1959 , p. 57)] clouds and precipitation are commonly observed in association with frontal zones in extratropical cyclones (e.g., Hobbs 1978 ; Houze 1993 , section 11.4). Proposed explanations for these bands (e.g., Parsons and Hobbs 1983 ; Emanuel 1990 ) include frontogenesis, boundary layer instabilities, ducted gravity waves, Kelvin–Helmholtz instability, and moist slantwise convection due to the

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Clifford Mass and Brigid Dotson

injury, national media attention has been less than for their tropical cousins. Only a handful has been described in the literature ( Lynott and Cramer 1966 ; Reed 1980 ; Reed and Albright 1986 ; Kuo and Reed 1988 ; Steenburgh and Mass 1996 ), and questions remain regarding their mesoscale and dynamic evolutions, including interactions with terrain. A review of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) publication Storm Data and newspaper accounts suggests a conservative

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Dayton G. Vincent

VOLUME 122 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW SEPTEMBER 1994The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ): A Review DAYTON G. VINCENTDepartment of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana(Manuscript received 14 September 1993, in final form 21 December 1993) ABSTRACT The cimulation features associated with the South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) and its

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P. L. Houtekamer and Fuqing Zhang

investigated in the 1980s and early 1990s (e.g., Ghil et al. 1981 ; Cohn and Parrish 1991 ; Daley 1995 ). One unsolved problem, aimed at an application with a realistic high-dimensional atmospheric forecast model, was how to obtain an appropriate low-dimensional approximation of the background error covariance matrix for a feasible implementation on a computational platform. The use of random ensembles currently seems to be the most practical way to address the issue. The use of Monte Carlo experiments

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Robert Wood

( Hartmann and Short 1980 ; Randall et al. 1984 ; Slingo 1990 ). Understanding why, where, when, and how stratocumuli form, and being able to quantify their properties, therefore constitutes a fundamental problem in the atmospheric sciences. Fig . 1. Satellite imagery demonstrating the tremendous wealth of form for stratocumulus clouds on the mesoscale. (left) A 250-m resolution visible reflectance image ( λ = 0.65 μ m) taken at 1235 UTC 7 Apr 2001 using the MODIS over the northeast Atlantic Ocean

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Zhiyong Meng and Fuqing Zhang

ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF; Evensen 1994 ), which estimates the background error covariance with a short-term ensemble forecast, is drawing increasing attention. Since its first application in atmospheric sciences ( Houtekamer and Mitchell 1998 ), the EnKF has been widely examined with different models at different scales (e.g., Hamill and Snyder 2000 ; Anderson 2001 ; Whitaker and Hamill 2002 ; Mitchell et al. 2002 ; Snyder and Zhang 2003 ; Zhang and Anderson 2003 ; Zhang et al. 2004 , 2006

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Peter Jan van Leeuwen

certain balances should be preserved (e.g., in atmospheric data assimilation the data-assimilation step should not introduce strong gravity waves since these tend to ruin the weather forecast). Up until recently this problem was solved by projection of the analyzed field on the so-called slow manifold, mainly related to geostrophy. However, as mentioned above, at higher resolution the coherent nonlinear structures follow other balances, which are not well known. In fact, the gravity waves become an

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William H. Raymond and Arthur Garder

- = 1 for orders (2p) 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 in curves A through E, respectively.FEBRUARY 1991 WILLIAM H. RAYMOND AND ARTHUR GARDER 4851.0 .9 .8 .7 .b .5 .4 ,3 .2 .1AMPLITUDE RESPONSE,1 .2 ,3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 WAVE NUMBER SCALE1.0 .9 .8 .7.3.2 AMPLITUDE RESPONSE-.1 0, ~ I 0 .1

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