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J. Gómez-Enri, C. P. Gommenginger, M. A. Srokosz, P. G. Challenor, and J. Benveniste

previous altimeters on ERS-1 and - 2 . The RA-2 ocean retracker is the result of a comparative study of various ocean-retracking algorithms ( ESA 2004 ) and is based on a modification of the Hayne model ( Hayne 1980 ). This model is an extension of the Brown model ( Brown 1977 ), with some nonlinearity of the ocean waves included by setting the wave skewness to a fixed constant value. The RA-2 altimeter design also allows improved estimates of the slope of the leading edge of the waveform in low-wave

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Xuan Wang, Romain Husson, Haoyu Jiang, Ge Chen, and Guoping Gao

1. Introduction Sentinel is a continuity mission that began after ERS-1 , ERS-2 , and Envisat ended in 2000, 2011, and 2012, respectively, with a finer spatial resolution, higher signal-to-noise, and broader image coverage. Sentinel-1A was launched on 3 April 2014 and is equipped with synthetic aperture radar (SAR), that routinely measures all-day accessible 2D swell spectra in open-ocean areas through a special image mode known as “wave mode” (WV). Sentinel-1A coverage is global with

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Takuji Waseda, Takeshi Kinoshita, and Hitoshi Tamura

1. Introduction Advancement in the understanding of freak waves has led people to rethink the nature of the ocean waves in deep water. The description of the ocean waves, by a self-similar wave spectrum that downshifts due to four-wave resonant interaction, seems robust. However, the generation of the freak wave is suggested to be associated with the abnormally narrow wave spectrum. Recent numerical and experimental studies provide evidence that the quasi-resonant interaction is at work when

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E. J. Walsh, C. W. Wright, M. L. Banner, D. C. Vandemark, B. Chapron, J. Jensen, and S. Lee

1. Introduction For the Southern Ocean Waves Experiment (SOWEX; Banner et al. 1999 ; Chen et al. 2001 ; Walsh et al. 2005 ), conducted in June 1992 out of Hobart, Tasmania, the NASA Scanning Radar Altimeter (SRA; Walsh et al. 1996 , 2002 ; Wright et al. 2001 ) was shipped to Australia and installed on the CSIRO Fokker F-27 research aircraft, instrumented to make comprehensive measurements of air–sea interaction fluxes. The SRA swept a radar beam of 1° half-power width (two way) across the

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Göran Broström, Kai Håkon Christensen, and Jan Erik H. Weber

1. Introduction That surface waves give rise to a net mass transport, or wave drift, has been known for over 150 years ( Stokes 1847 ). Nevertheless, there is still an ongoing discussion on how the mass transport, and the associated momentum flux, should be incorporated into ocean models of various complexities. Several recent papers have provided a variety of descriptions ( Ardhuin et al. 2004 ; Lane et al. 2007 ; McWilliams and Restrepo 1999 ; McWilliams et al. 2004 ; Mellor 2003 ; Weber

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Johannes Gemmrich and Adam Monahan

1. Introduction Surface waves on oceans and lakes play an important role in many aspects of physical oceanography, ocean engineering, and climate science. Waves enhance the air–water exchange processes of momentum, gases, and heat; generate turbulence in the near-surface layer; can pose risks to marine operations and structures; and are a source of renewable energy. Spectral wave models like Wavewatch III ( WAVEWATCH III Development Group 2016 ) or WAM routinely predict properties of surface

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Jian-Guo Li and Martin Holt

1. Introduction Ocean wave forecasts continue to be important for marine transportation, coastal defense, ship design, offshore oil exploration, search and rescue operations, water sports, and other marine activities. Ocean surface waves also play an active role in the ocean–atmosphere exchange of mass, heat, and momentum ( Fairall et al. 2003 ), especially at high wind speeds ( Powell et al. 2003 ) and hence should be taken into account in coupled ocean–atmospheric models. Compared to the

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Angelicque White, Karin Björkman, Eric Grabowski, Ricardo Letelier, Steve Poulos, Blake Watkins, and David Karl

1. Introduction The vertical displacement of waves can be employed to transfer deep, nutrient-rich water to the surface of the ocean using a rather simple pump design originally conceived by Isaacs et al. (1976) . A modern version of this concept is depicted in Fig. 1 . It consists of a vertical pipe attached to a free-floating surface buoy. A valve that opens and closes at opposite phases of a wave cycle is installed at the bottom end of the pipe. As the buoy moves down the surface of a wave

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George L. Mellor, Mark A. Donelan, and Lie-Yauw Oey

1. Introduction This paper follows a paper by Mellor (2003 , hereafter M03 ), which, however, has been revised ( Mellor 2008 ); the revisions did change Eqs. (6) – (8) below but do not affect any calculated results in this paper since coupling with an ocean has not been activated. The phase-averaged, wave–current equations of motion were extended to the third vertical dimension. In much of the literature (e.g., Phillips 1977 ), the wave interacting continuity and momentum equations were, a

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Fabrice Veron, W. Kendall Melville, and Luc Lenain

surface. For example, the velocity field is not required to vanish at the interface. The ocean surface responds with drift currents, surface waves, and turbulent eddies over a broad range of scales. There are other phenomena—such as bubble injection, spray ejection, rainfall, foam, and surfactants—which further affect the dynamics and complicate the problem. Consequently, one would expect the dynamics of such an interfacial layer to be significantly different from that over a solid flat surface under

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