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Changhyun Yoo, Sungsu Park, Daehyun Kim, Jin-Ho Yoon, and Hye-Mi Kim

observations and the UNICON ( Figs. 4a,b ). About 10 days before MJO phase 7, MJO passes phase 5, which is associated with an enhanced convection over the Maritime Continent and western Pacific Ocean that leads to an increased poleward wave activity (Fig. 3 in Yoo et al. 2012a ). On lag day 0 of phase 7, the UNICON captures the enhanced wave trains emanating from the date line of the tropics, propagating across North Pacific and into North America ( Fig. 4b ). On lag +10 and +15 days, these wave trains

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Graham R. Simpkins, Yannick Peings, and Gudrun Magnusdottir

tropical Pacific . Nat. Climate Change , 3 , 571 – 576 , doi: 10.1038/nclimate1840 . Li , X. , D. M. Holland , E. P. Gerber , and C. Yoo , 2014 : Impacts of the north and tropical Atlantic Ocean on the Antarctic Peninsula and sea ice . Nature , 505 , 538 – 542 , doi: 10.1038/nature12945 . Li , X. , E. P. Gerber , D. M. Holland , and C. Yoo , 2015a : A Rossby wave bridge from the tropical Atlantic to West Antarctica . J. Climate , 28 , 2256 – 2273 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI

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Jin-Yi Yu, Houk Paek, Eric S. Saltzman, and Tong Lee

composites differ over the Indian Ocean sector, where a stationary wave train pattern emanating from the tropics can be found in the EP El Niño composite but not in the CP El Niño composite. This wave train pattern is associated with the Indian Ocean SST anomalies induced by the EP El Niño (see Fig. 4b ), which are characterized by an east–west SST anomaly dipole resembling the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD; Saji et al. 1999 ; Webster et al. 1999 ). The IOD is known to peak in SON and be capable of

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Ariaan Purich, Matthew H. England, Wenju Cai, Yoshimitsu Chikamoto, Axel Timmermann, John C. Fyfe, Leela Frankcombe, Gerald A. Meehl, and Julie M. Arblaster

Peninsula and sea ice . Nature , 505 , 538 – 542 , doi: 10.1038/nature12945 . Li , X. , E. P. Gerber , D. M. Holland , and C. Yoo , 2015a : A Rossby wave bridge from the tropical Atlantic to West Antarctica . J. Climate , 28 , 2256 – 2273 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00450.1 . Li , X. , D. M. Holland , E. P. Gerber , and C. Yoo , 2015b : Rossby waves mediate impacts of tropical oceans on West Antarctic atmospheric circulation in austral winter . J. Climate , 28 , 8151 – 8164

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Aaron B. Wilson, David H. Bromwich, and Keith M. Hines

atmosphere–ocean coupled El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) ( Trenberth 1997 ). During the warm phase of ENSO (El Niño), a weakening/reversal of the tropical trade winds allows anomalous warm water to move toward the central and/or eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, shifting tropical convection eastward and affecting global atmospheric circulation ( Hoskins and Karoly 1981 ; Arkin 1982 ). The ENSO teleconnection to the SH is characterized as a Rossby wave, specifically the Pacific–South American pattern

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Lee J. Welhouse, Matthew A. Lazzara, Linda M. Keller, Gregory J. Tripoli, and Matthew H. Hitchman

1. Introduction This research focuses on the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal found throughout Antarctic surface observations and reanalysis data. [For a more complete review of prior literature on interactions between ENSO and Antarctica see Turner (2004) .] Understanding of ENSO, and its effects, has expanded substantially since it was initially investigated in depth. ENSO is now understood to be among the dominant modes of variability of both the atmosphere and ocean on decadal

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Kyle R. Clem, James A. Renwick, and James McGregor

of SAT. Here, the focus is on the leading patterns of SAT, and on the West Antarctic region only using 37 years of modern reanalysis SAT data, nearly doubling the period of analysis of previous studies. Using reanalyses provides spatially continuous SAT over the continent and adjacent Southern Ocean, allowing for improved understanding of how West Antarctic SAT patterns are related to sea ice, which has previously been shown to strongly influence West Antarctic SAT (e.g., Meredith and King 2005

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Bradley P. Goodwin, Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Aaron B. Wilson, Stacy E. Porter, and M. Roxana Sierra-Hernandez

anomaly reemergence in subsequent winters, and ENSO through both the atmospheric bridge (Rossby waves) and oceanic wave processes (e.g., Alexander et al. 1999 ; Newman et al. 2003 ; Schneider and Cornuelle 2005 ). The PDO has changed polarity in 1925, 1947, and 1977 CE (Common Era; henceforth all dates are in CE although not designated as such) with the period prior to 1925 characterized as a “warm” PDO phase. The “cool” phase observed between 1947 and 1977 resulted in more prevalent La Niña

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Bradford S. Barrett, Gina R. Henderson, and Joshua S. Werling

1. Introduction Tropical convective heating, including from the leading mode of atmospheric intraseasonal variability, the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 , 1994 ), forces a global atmospheric response in the form of poleward-extending wave trains ( Hoskins and Karoly 1981 ; Sardeshmukh and Hoskins 1988 ; Jin and Hoskins 1995 ; Bladé and Hartmann 1995 ). These wave trains exert significant control over extratropical tropospheric circulation ( Wallace and

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Ryan L. Fogt and Alex J. Wovrosh

topography, specifically the nonsymmetric orientation of the continent, such as the high plateau of East Antarctica (which reaches an elevation of over 3000 m) and the western Antarctic Peninsula ( Baines and Fraedrich 1989 ; Lachlan-Cope et al. 2001 ). The ASL has a seasonal movement due to the location of the Rossby long waves in the Southern Hemisphere ( Turner et al. 2013 ), being farther east toward the Antarctic Peninsula in austral summer and farther west toward the Ross Sea in austral winter

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