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Trent W. Ford, Steven M. Quiring, Chen Zhao, Zachary T. Leasor, and Christian Landry

.25° horizontal resolution. We use the ESA-CCI dataset in this study instead of an individual platform such as Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP; Entekhabi et al. 2010 ) or Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS L3; Kerr et al. 2010 ) because of their relatively short data records (~5 years and ~11 years, respectively). ESA-CCI provides daily soil moisture observations in units of volumetric water content (m 3 m −3 ). The Noah soil moisture dataset, which is part of the National Land Data Assimilation

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Jesse E. Bell, Michael A. Palecki, C. Bruce Baker, William G. Collins, Jay H. Lawrimore, Ronald D. Leeper, Mark E. Hall, John Kochendorfer, Tilden P. Meyers, Tim Wilson, and Howard J. Diamond

1. Introduction In response to national and international discussions of the state of climate observations in the mid-1990s ( Karl et al. 1995a ), principles were established to govern the best practices for climate monitoring. The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) then made the decision to deploy climate monitoring stations that were designed with very high standards of quality and reliability ( Heim 2001 ). The first prototype U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN

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R. Garreaud

Pacific anticyclone, featuring a semiarid climate between extremely dry conditions to the north and more humid conditions to the south (e.g., Fig. 2b ). In the east–west direction, the Andes cordillera—rising over 4000 m MSL—acts as a boundary between the continental climate of central Argentina and the milder, ocean-controlled climate of central Chile (e.g., Garreaud et al. 2009 ). Annual mean precipitation varies from 200 to 700 mm, depending on latitude and altitude, and exhibits significant

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Meysam Ghamariadyan and Monzur A. Imteaz

). Similar to ENSO, the temperature gradient fluctuations through the Indian Ocean result in rising and descending moisture and air in the preferred regions. The Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) is defined by the difference in sea surface temperature between two areas (or poles, hence a dipole)—a western pole in the Arabian Sea (western Indian Ocean) and an eastern pole in the eastern Indian Ocean south of Indonesia. It is worth noting that understanding the relationships between predictors (e.g., rainfall

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Ayumi Fujisaki-Manome, Greg E. Mann, Eric J. Anderson, Philip Y. Chu, Lindsay E. Fitzpatrick, Stanley G. Benjamin, Eric P. James, Tatiana G. Smirnova, Curtis R. Alexander, and David M. Wright

.1029/95JC02554 . 10.1029/95JC02554 Mellor , G. L. , and T. Yamada , 1982 : Development of a turbulent closure model for geophysical fluid problems . Rev. Geophys. , 20 , 851 – 875 , https://doi.org/10.1029/RG020i004p00851 . 10.1029/RG020i004p00851 Mellor , G. L. , and A. Blumberg , 2004 : Wave breaking and ocean surface layer thermal response . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 34 , 693 – 698 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2517.1 . 10.1175/2517.1 Minder , J. R. , W. M. Bartolini , C. Spence

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Hongyi Li, Mark S. Wigmosta, Huan Wu, Maoyi Huang, Yinghai Ke, André M. Coleman, and L. Ruby Leung

and evapotranspiration, runoff routing, which is the lateral transportation of surface water over land, facilitates water exchanges among the atmosphere, land surface, and ocean. Streamflow that results from runoff routing is also an important variable for evaluating land surface and hydrology models from small watershed to large river basin scales, as streamflow is one of the quantities in the global water budget that can be measured with good accuracy, especially compared to evapotranspiration

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Youcun Qi and Jian Zhang

regions of the United States are presented in section 3 . A summary and discussion of future work follows in section 4 . 2. Methodology a. S-band precipitation profiler data analysis The profiler data used in this study were obtained from two S-band precipitation profiler radars deployed during the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hydrometeorological Testbed (HMT, http://hmt.noaa.gov ) in November 2005 to April 2006. The radars were located in Cazadero (CZC) near the west

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Youcun Qi, Jian Zhang, Qing Cao, Yang Hong, and Xiao-Ming Hu

more frequent spaceborne radar observations and increase the usefulness of the current method in operations. Acknowledgments Major funding for this research was provided under NOAA–University of Oklahoma Cooperative Agreement NA17RJ1227. This manuscript has greatly benefited from the comments of anonymous reviewers. REFERENCES Anagnostou, E. N. , and Krajewski W. F. , 1999 : Real-time radar rainfall estimation. Part II: Case study . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 16 , 198 – 205 . Awaka, J

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Rhonalyn V. Macalalad, Roy A. Badilla, Olivia C. Cabrera, and Gerry Bagtasa

winter. We also note that all the distant landfalling TCs (not traversing the PRB) that resulted in critical-level events were TY categories and at least TS category below critical-level floods. Other distant landfalling TCs moving north and south of the PRB in northeast and southwest monsoon season, respectively, did not lead to flooding events. Moisture transport to TCs from distant ocean sources makes up a large proportion of a TCs’ total precipitable water ( Kudo et al. 2014 ). This intrusion of

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Nicholas E. Wayand, Alan F. Hamlet, Mimi Hughes, Shara I. Feld, and Jessica D. Lundquist

reasons. First, it is a relatively simple basin in terms of subsurface contributions. Shallow soils, steep topography, and negligible groundwater contribution during the cool season mean that accurate simulation of streamflow is largely dependent on the meteorological forcing. Second, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) program has maintained a dense network of meteorological stations that cover the basin ( Ralph et al. 2005 ). Third, the upper

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