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Barbara C. Farhar and Julia Mewes

694 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY Vo~.u~ml4Weather Modification Decision Making: State Law and Public Response BARBARA C. FA2~ A~X) .[tmXA Mv-w~sHuman Ecology Res~rch Se~ces, Inc., BouMer, Colo. 80302(Manuscript recfved 30 September 1974)ABSTRACT A three-year sociological study has focused on a comparison of public response and dedsion-makingprocesses with reference to weather modification projects in a

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Ray Jay Davis

Auousa'1975 RAY JAY DAVIS 681Legal Response to Environmental Concerns about Weather Modification RAY JAY DAVIS College of Law, tfniversity of Arizor~a, Tucson 85711(Manuscript received 28 August 1974, in revised form 17 January 1975)ABSTRACT Legal response to environmental concerns about weather engineering was minimal until the late 1960'swhen state laws began to tighten

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J. Eugene Haas

A description of the social context and citizen response to three weather modification projects provides an introduction to the discussion of a variety of social and economic issues related to planned weather modification. Various interest groups have markedly different perspectives on weather modification. Most persons subject to the consequences of weather modification have no opportunity to participate in the associated decision process even though they believe they have a right to do so. Factors possibly associated with conflict over weather modification are considered.

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William M. Gray, William M. Frank, Myron L. Corrin, and Charles A. Stokes

APmL1976 GRAY, FRANK, CORRIN AND STOKES 355Weather Modification by Carbon Dust Absorption of Solar EnergyWILLIAM M. GRAY, WILLIAM M. FRANK, MYRON L. CORRIN AND CHARLES A. STOKIgS1 Atmospheric Science Department, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins 80523 (Manuscript received 19 June 1975, in revised form 22 December 1975)ABSTRACT Growing global population pressures and predicted future

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Steven T. Sonka

778 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUMI~17The Economics of Weather Modification: A Review and Suggestions for Future Economic Analysis S~u~WN T. SONKA Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Illinois, Urbana-Cltarnpaign 61820 (Manuscript received 14 November 1977, in final form 13 January 1978) ABSTRACT The article

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Michael Garstang, Roelof Bruintjes, Robert Serafin, Harold Orville, Bruce Boe, William Cotton, and Joseph Warburton

Research and operational approaches to weather modification expressed in the National Research Council's 2003 report on “Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research” and in the Weather Modification Association's response to that report form the basis for this discussion. There is agreement that advances in the past few decades over a broad front of understanding physical processes and in technology have not been comprehensively applied to weather modification. Such advances need to be capitalized upon in the form of a concerted and sustained national effort to carry out basic and applied research in weather modification. The need for credible scientific evidence and the pressure for action should be resolved. Differences in the perception of current knowledge, the utility of numerical models, and the specific needs of research and operations in weather modification must be addressed. The increasing demand for water and the cost to society inflicted by severe weather require that the intellectual, technical, and administrative resources of the nation be combined to resolve whether and to what degree humans can influence the weather.

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Barbara C. Farhar

702 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUME14Weather Modification and Public Opinion in South Dakota, 1972 and 1973Human ,Ecolo-y Research $~es, Inc., Bo~Jder, Colo. 80302 (Manuscript received 30 September 1974) Public response to South Dakota's operational cloud seeding program (SDWMP) h~s been tra~:ed sincebefore its implementation. Data are presented from interviews conducted at the end of each of the program'stirst two

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Kenneth C. Young

Early progress in weather modification is attributed to a healthy interaction between theory and experiment. During the 1970s, a divergence of approaches took place. A “theoretical/experimental” approach, exemplified by the Cascade Project, focused on testing scientific hypotheses; an “observational/experimental” approach, exemplified by the Colorado River Basin Pilot Project, sought to enhance understanding of the seeding process through more detailed observations.

The theoretical/experimental school soon came to focus almost exclusively on natural cloud processes, leaving the field of weather modification nearly devoid of a theoretical component. It is suggested that this theoretical component is necessary to revitalize the field of weather modification.

Key questions are addressed. These include 1) identification of clouds that are amenable to seeding; 2) glaciogenic versus hygroscopic seeding; 3) optimizing critical seeding variables, such as seed particle concentration for glaciogenic seeding and seed particle size for hygroscopic seeding; and 4) seeding for hail suppression.

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Thomas J. Henderson

JUNE1978 THOMAS J. HENDERSON 889What Does Weather Modification Need?A View from the Operational Level THOM^S J. HENrm~so~Atmospherics Incorporated, Fresno, Calif. 93727(Manuscript received 4 November 1977, in final form 31 January 1978)ABSTRACT For 30 years the field of weather modification has been struggling through a labyrinth of scientific, legal~societal, economic, legislative

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Anthony R. Olsen

970 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY -O~.UME14Bayesian and Classical Statistical Methods Applied to Randomized Weather Modification Experiments~ ANTHONY R. OLSENBattelle-Northwest, Ri~hlamt, Wash. 99352(Manuscript received 28 August 1974, in revised form 7 April 1975)ABSTRACT Statistical procedures for analyzing the results of randomized weather modification experiments are presented in a

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