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June 1966.. . .V. H. Goerke and M. W. Woodward39sINFRASONIC OBSERVATION OF A SEVER WEATHER SYSTEMV. H. GOERKE AND M. W. WOODWARDInstitute for Telecommunication Sciences and Aeronomy*, Environmental Science Services Administration, Boulder, CobABSTRACT The coherent atmospheric pressure waves traveling at sonic velocities from a squall line storm 20-75 km. distant,were observed in detail for a period of 100 min. The measurements indicate that the infrasonic wave WRS generatedin or near the

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Miriam Blaskovic, Roger Davies, and J. B. Snider

the extreme upwind end of San Nicolas Island (33.1-N, I19.31-W, approximately 100 kmsouthwest of Los Angeles) such that the data collectedwere relatively unperturbed by island effects and werecharacteristic of marine conditions. Of interest to thepresent study was the combination of a variety of instruments, which were well suited to providing information on the time dependent nature of marine stratocumulus and made more or less continuous measurements between 1 July and 19 July 1987. Data

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From Mesonetwork Rawinsonde Obscr-vations," Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, T'ol. 27, No. 4,Barsis, A. P., and Hause, L. G., "On Height-Gain Studies Over aLong Mountain-Obstacle Diffraction Path," Radio Science, Vol.Braun, W. C., "The Effects of Diffraction on the Field of View ofan Optical Instrument," Applied Optics, T'ol. 9, No. 8, Aug. 1970,Clapp, Philip F., "Parameterization of Macroscale Transient HeatTransport for Vse in a Mean-Motion Model of the GeneralCirculation," Journal of Applied

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Clive E. Dorman

separated by coastal mountains are misleading.A parcel of coastal air below the ridge line cannot respond to a pressure difference on the other side andbelow the ridge. For example, there was the substantialincrease of over 3 hPa in the daytime onshore pressuredifference between Woods Hole buoy C5 and Ukiah(about 35 km inland). But, as the above coastal measurements show, the daytime heat-caused pressure effects are restricted to the land side of the first coastalrange in the eddy area. The cross

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Paul J. Neiman, Peter T. May, and M. A. Shapiro

horizontal motions, this method is potentially limited by falling hydrometeors (e.g., Wakasugi et al. 1987; Gossard 1988)and measurement errors due to finite beamwidth effects. In addition, directly measured ~0 can be dominated by internal gravity waves that usually have periods from several minutes to a couple of hours, andamplitudes much greater than those expected for largescale motions. Hence, in studies that wish to reducegravity-wave effects, suitable time averages must bechosen depending on the

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C. F. Ropelewski and J. B. Jalickee

TemperatureFIG. l. Schematic of the undisturbed tropicalboundary-layer structure.the GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE).In an analysis of these tropical squall lines, Houze(1977) examined the effects of convective overturning on the boundary layer. He noted the formationof a relatively persistent cool, dry layer near thesurface associated with the squall line. Zipser (1977)also examined the structure of active squalls, including their effects on the boundary layer and observeda similar stable layer. He

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C. E. Dorman, T. Holt, D. P. Rogers, and K. Edwards

atmospheric measurements over the open coast are limited. Existing large-scale climatologies are based upon ship observations. Nelson (1977) and Nelson and Husby (1983) analyzed ship observations to find that sea level winds accelerate around the North Pacific anticyclone, reaching a broad maximum between Cape Blanco and Point Conception, which extends more than 5° of longitude offshore. Fastest winds are found off of northern California. Based upon a few ship cruises, Neiburger et al. (1961

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Lisa S. Darby, William D. Neff, and Robert M. Banta

, potential temperature and mixing ratio patterns, and streamlines. The evolution and effects of the mesofront are summarized in section 7 . 2. Background In previous research, both dry and moist synoptic-scale cold fronts have been observed in detail as they passed the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO, Fig. 1a ) ( Shapiro 1984 ; Young and Johnson 1984 ). Using Taylor’s hypothesis, analyses of measurements from fast-response instrumentation on a 300-m tower gave finescale

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A. de la Torre, V. Daniel, R. Tailleux, and H. Teitelbaum

direction. Later observations by means of tethered balloons ( Whiteman 1982 ), Doppler lidar ( Post and Neff 1986 ), and acoustic sounders ( Neff and King 1987 ) confirmed this and brought additional details to the knowledge of internal circulation in different valleys. Geiger (1971) has referred to local winds in the mountains, making a distinction between the “active” and “passive” influence of the configuration of the land on the air flowing over it. According to this distinction, an active

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Alexander G. McAdie

occur in the atmosphere where strataof different densities lie close together, with particular refer-ence to the billow and wave effects near the limiting surfacesof the strata.It appears to me not doubtfu1,lsays Helmholtz, that such systems of waves occur with remarkable frequencv at the bounding surfaces of strata of air of different densities, even-although in most cases they remain invisible to us. Evidently we. see them on1 when the lowest stratum is so nearly saturated with aqueous vapor tiat

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