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Joseph J. Michalsky and Charles N. Long

beginning in 2007 and ending in 2009 to study different techniques to heat and ventilate radiometers to keep the ice from forming yet minimizing the effects on the integrity of the measurements. Although improvements have been made, Arctic radiometry continues to be a challenge. This chapter includes a discussion of specific broadband instruments used for measurements, their calibrations, and changes to the instrumentation including the data logging. Uncertainties in the field measurements are covered

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Ronald B. Smith

-10) Z F = − T S / γ . If γ = dT / dz = −6.5°C km −1 and surface temperature T S = 20°C, the melting level will be at Z F = (20/6.5) = 3.1 km. Above this level, precipitation will fall as snow. Below Z F , precipitation will fall as rain. This snow/rain boundary is often evident in mountain scenery ( Fig. 20-2 ). Because it depends so sensitively on surface temperature, Z F varies greatly with latitude, season, and weather type. In cold Arctic climates (e.g., Denali, Alaska) in winter

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Jeffrey L. Stith, Darrel Baumgardner, Julie Haggerty, R. Michael Hardesty, Wen-Chau Lee, Donald Lenschow, Peter Pilewskie, Paul L. Smith, Matthias Steiner, and Holger Vömel

collaborators. One of the most important historical examples of the advances in meteorology brought about by upper-air observing systems is the understanding of planetary waves (Rossby waves), which was pioneered by Carl-Gustaf Rossby in 1939–40—for example, see the reviews of Rossby’s work by Byers (1960) and Platzman (1968) . Other important phenomena discovered using upper-air observations include the quasi-biennial oscillation (e.g., see section 3 and the review by Wallace 1973 ) and the Madden

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S. A. Ackerman, S. Platnick, P. K. Bhartia, B. Duncan, T. L’Ecuyer, A. Heidinger, G. Skofronick-Jackson, N. Loeb, T. Schmit, and N. Smith

the Northern Hemisphere ( Frierson et al. 2013 ; Marshall et al. 2014 ; Loeb et al. 2016a ). CERES data combined with atmospheric reanalyzes were used to estimate ocean heat transports throughout the Atlantic. Results agree well with observational estimates ( Trenberth and Fasullo 2017 ). CERES data have been used to study changes in TOA radiation budget in response to Arctic sea ice changes. For every 10 6 km 2 decrease in September sea ice extent, annual-mean absorbed solar radiation

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David A. Randall, Cecilia M. Bitz, Gokhan Danabasoglu, A. Scott Denning, Peter R. Gent, Andrew Gettelman, Stephen M. Griffies, Peter Lynch, Hugh Morrison, Robert Pincus, and John Thuburn

became the 25th visitor to GFDL. He was impressed by the practical issues of sea ice modeling in a global climate model. He learned how ocean models were formulated from his host Frank Bryan, who inspired him to simplify the sea ice model from the Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment (AIDJEX; Coon et al. 1974 ), which employed a constitutive law for plastic behavior to simulate the dependence of the stress tensor on the velocity field, allowing for material failure and deformation. Hibler (1979

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Maria Carmen Lemos, Hallie Eakin, Lisa Dilling, and Jessica Worl

, advancements in understanding the coupled atmosphere–ocean system led to the tantalizing discovery of some skill in predicting the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate pattern months ahead of time ( Zebiak and Cane 1987 ) and revealed ENSO’s teleconnections to droughts and flooding events in different regions of the world ( Ropelewski and Halpert 1987 ). These advances opened the door to the possibility of using the predictability of the ENSO system as an input to decision-making for farmers, water

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Stanley G. Benjamin, John M. Brown, Gilbert Brunet, Peter Lynch, Kazuo Saito, and Thomas W. Schlatter

McGill University, a radar meteorology group from the physics department and an Arctic meteorology group from geography united in 1959 to form the Department of Meteorology. McGill has been a leader in the training of many distinguished atmospheric scientists including André Robert, who developed the first global spectral numerical model and integration in 1965. At the University of Tokyo in Japan, T. Okada and S. Fujiwhara built the basis of the modern Japanese meteorological science/service. The

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David M. Schultz, Lance F. Bosart, Brian A. Colle, Huw C. Davies, Christopher Dearden, Daniel Keyser, Olivia Martius, Paul J. Roebber, W. James Steenburgh, Hans Volkert, and Andrew C. Winters

, whereas in the eastern Atlantic the areas of maximum latent heat release shift meridionally in tandem with the storm track and hence help to maintain the anomalous storm-track positions ( Woollings et al. 2016 ). The interdependency between the creation of baroclinicity by diabatic processes and destruction of baroclinicity by the release of baroclinic instability on subseasonal time scales may explain oscillations of storm-track intensity on these time scales (e.g., Ambaum and Novak 2014 ; Novak et

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