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Anna M. Wilson and Ana P. Barros

orographic land–atmosphere interactions associated with the observed diurnal cycle of warm rainfall in the SAM, including reverse orographic enhancement and cloud immersion. WB15 showed that patterns of moisture convergence in weak and strong synoptic forcing conditions modified by the terrain result in “hot spots” consistent with LLCF formation patterns that support seeder–feeder interactions with propagating precipitation systems as proposed by WB14 . From observations ( WB14 ; WB15 ), a synthesis

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Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas and Sumant Nigam

1. Introduction The U.S. Great Plains is a region of heightened atmosphere–land surface interaction from boreal spring to fall. Terrestrial water resources are recharged in winter/spring and expended in summer and fall (the growing seasons), with evapotranspiration being a key element of the seasonal regional atmospheric and terrestrial water cycles (e.g., Nigam and Ruiz-Barradas 2006 ). However, evapotranspiration has a modest role in nonseasonal hydroclimate variability over this region

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Zhong Zhong, Yuan Sun, Xiu-Qun Yang, Weidong Guo, and Haishan Chen

describe the exchange of water, heat, and momentum across the land–atmosphere interface ( Brutsaert 1998 ; Albertson and Parlange 1999 ). Substantial progresses in representing the role of surface heterogeneity on land–atmosphere interaction has been achieved ( Henderson-Sellers and Pitman 1992 ; Lyons and Halldin 2004 ; Kanda et al. 2007 ; Ma et al. 2008 ; Brunsell et al. 2011 ). Numerous efforts have attempted to address the land surface parameters, such as roughness length, to ascertain area

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Jessica M. Erlingis and Ana P. Barros

1. Introduction Previously, the southern Great Plains (SGP) region was identified as a maximum “hot spot” for land–atmosphere interactions on time and spatial scales relevant for climate studies ( Koster et al. 2004 ), though the coupling mechanism proper, in particular the seasonality and spatial scales of soil moisture S and precipitation P feedbacks (e.g., the S – P relationship) and the role of evapotranspiration, remains the subject of active research ( Luo et al. 2007 ; Wei et al

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Shanshui Yuan, Steven M. Quiring, and Chen Zhao

inhibition; enhancing the probability of convective precipitation over drier soils ( Ford et al. 2015a , 2018 ; Tuttle and Salvucci 2016 ). Hence, soil moisture is a critical variable for both characterizing drought conditions and for investigating land–atmosphere interactions. Drought indices have been used to characterize near-surface moisture conditions in some land–atmosphere interaction studies because of the lack of available soil moisture measurements. For example, Hirschi et al. (2010) used

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David M. Lawrence, Peter E. Thornton, Keith W. Oleson, and Gordon B. Bonan

storage. We also evaluate how the partitioning of ET affects climate simulations with an emphasis on how ET partitioning influences land–atmosphere interactions. It should be noted that this research has been conducted within the context of a longer-term CLM community-oriented project that is focused on a thorough reconsideration, evaluation, and development of CLM hydrology. The modifications documented here represent significant practical improvements to the released version of CLM3, thereby

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Estela A. Collini, Ernesto H. Berbery, Vicente R. Barros, and Matthew E. Pyle

3 discusses the background state and the control runs that are used as reference. Section 4 examines the overall effects of soil moisture changes on land–atmosphere interactions at the local scales. The impact of these changes in the low-level jet east of the Andes and the corresponding moisture flux convergence are addressed next in section 5 . Finally, a summary and the main conclusions are presented in section 6 . 2. Experimental design The experiments performed for this research were

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Andrea Alessandri, Silvio Gualdi, Jan Polcher, and Antonio Navarra

numerical study by Schubert et al. (2004) indicate that the dramatic 1930s Dust Bowl drought that occurred in the southern Great Plains was caused by anomalous tropical sea surface temperature during that decade and that interactions between the atmosphere and the land surface considerably increased its severity. The Asian summer monsoon has been largely studied, also because of the impacts that this phenomenon has on the economy of one of the most populated regions of the world. Some works suggest

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Peter E. Thornton and Niklaus E. Zimmermann

Bornean tropical rain forest using measured vertical and horizontal variations in leaf-level physiological parameters and leaf area densities. J. Geophys. Res. , 111 . D10107, doi:10.1029/2005JD006676 . Lawrence , D. M. , P. E. Thornton , K. W. Oleson , and G. B. Bonan , 2007 : The partitioning of evapotranspiration into transpiration, soil evaporation, and canopy evaporation in a GCM: Impacts on land–atmosphere interaction. J. Hydrometeor. , in press . Le Roux , X. , H. SinoQuet

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Michael A. White, Peter E. Thornton, Steven W. Running, and Ramakrishna R. Nemani

local to global scales is therefore central topic for carbon cycle researchers, foresters, land and resource managers, and politicians. For recent or current NPP estimates, satellite remote sensing can be used (e.g., Potter et al. 1993 ) but for research investigating pre-1970s time periods or future climate scenarios, simulation models are required. Models have been used to simulate regional water and carbon cycles under current and historical climates ( Nemani et al. 1993 ; Running 1994 ), soil

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