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James A. Coakley Jr. and Robert D. Cess

to changes in convection and wind fields which in turn led to asignificant reduction in precipitation. The processes involved in the changes were like those discussed by Charneyet al. for the role of surface albedo in desertification.1. Introduction The ubiquitous haze which habitates the lower troposphere has for some time provoked speculation thatits interaction with solar and terrestrial radiation noticeably affects the general circulation of the atmosphere and the earth's climate (WMO,)983

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David A. Randall, James A. Abeles, and Thomas G. Corsetti

surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat are themost important source of moist available energy forthe atmospheric circulation (Lorenz, 1978), andboundary-layer friction is the most important sink of641642 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 42, No. 7 atmospheric kinetic energy (e.g., Palm6n and Newton, 1969). The PBL directly controls the interaction of the atmosphere with the oceans and the land

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C-P. Chang and Tim Li

-biennial oscillation ( Reed et al. 1961 ), is associated with variations in the tropical atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperature (SST) over the tropical oceans ( Rasmusson and Carpenter 1982 ; Meehl 1987 ; Kiladis and van Loon 1988 ; Ropelewski et al. 1992 ; Lau and Yang 1996 ). It appears that TBO as a prominent feature of the Asian–Australian monsoon may involve strong coupling and interactions between the atmosphere, ocean, and land surface. One important feature of the atmospheric convection

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David A. Randall, Harshvardhan, Donald A. Dazlich, and Thomas G. Corsetti

I JULYI989 RANDALL, HARSHVARDHAN, DAZLI'CH AND CORSETTI 1943Interactions among Radiation, Convection, and Large-Scale Dynamics in a General Circulation ModelDAVID A. RANDALL, *' * * HARSHVARDHAN, + '@ DONALD A. DAZLICHI'* * AND THOMAS G. CORSETTIII ,t *Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA /GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland+Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland, College

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Bin Wang and Tianming Li

advection of momentum isgenerally negligible, even near the equator, in the boundapJ-layer momentum balance. The large SST gradientsin the subtropics play an important role in forcing rotational and cross-isobaric winds.1. Introduction The processes by which sea surface temperature(SST) fomes atmospheric circulation are parts of thekey elements of ocean-atmosphere interaction. Ourcurrent understanding of these processes is acknowledged as a major weakness in the modeling of the coupled ocean

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Mickey M-K. Wai and Eric A. Smith

1. Introduction In recent years, land–atmosphere interactions have become an important research topic in boundary layer meteorology, numerical weather prediction, and climate dynamics (e.g., see Sellers and Dorman 1987 ; Dickinson 1989 ; Dastoor and Krishnamurti 1991 ; Brutsaert and Sugita 1992 ; Betts et al. 1993 ; Chen and Avissar 1994 ; Smith et al. 1994 ; Lynn et al. 1995 ; Zeng and Pielke 1995 ). The variable nature of soil moisture and vegetation cover affects boundary layer

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J. Turk, F. S. Marzano, and A. Mugnai

- and coarse-scale microwave radiometric data would be useful for testing of deconvolution techniques and precipitation retrieval algorithms that accomodate the inherent coarseness of current microwave radiometric data. In this manuscript, we examine coincident passive and active microwave measurements gathered over tropical rainfall by a finescale airborne radar–radiometer combination. The datasets used were gathered during TOGA COARE (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere

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Edwin P. Gerber and Geoffrey K. Vallis

maintain the existence of the jet. This self-maintenance mechanism reinforces the jet at the latitude of peak winds, and so could extend persistence of jet anomalies as well. In this paper, we use a dry primitive equation model of the atmosphere to focus on the interactions between eddies and the large-scale flow. It has been demonstrated that atmosphere-only models can well capture the essential dynamics of both the NAO and annular modes ( Limpasuvan and Hartmann 2000 ; Cash et al. 2002

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Ofer Shamir, Chen Schwartz, Chaim I. Garfinkel, and Nathan Paldor

Abstract

A yet unexplained feature of the tropical wavenumber-frequency spectrum is its parity distributions, i.e., the distribution of power between the meridionally symmetric and anti-symmetric components of the spectrum. Due to the linearity of the decomposition to symmetric and anti-symmetric components and the Fourier analysis, the total spectral power equals the sum of the power contained in each of these two components. However, the spectral power need not be evenly distributed between the two components. Satellite observations and reanalysis data provide ample evidence that the parity distribution of the tropical wavenumber-frequency spectrum is biased towards its symmetric component. Using an intermediate-complexity model of an idealized moist atmosphere, we find that the parity distribution of the tropical spectrum is nearly insensitive to large-scale forcing, including topography, ocean heat fluxes, and land-sea contrast. On the other hand, we find that a small-scale (stochastic) forcing has the capacity to affect the parity distribution at large spatial scales via an upscale (inverse) turbulent energy cascade. These results are qualitatively explained by considering the effects of triad interactions on the parity distribution. According to the proposed mechanism, any bias in the small-scale forcing, symmetric or anti-symmetric, leads to symmetric bias in the large-scale spectrum regardless of the source of variability responsible for the onset of the asymmetry. As this process is also associated with the generation of large-scale features in the Tropics by small-scale convection, the present study demonstrates that the physical process associated with deep-convection leads to a symmetric bias in the tropical spectrum.

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Eric A. Smith

The First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) has produced a wealth of scientific results associated with land–atmosphere interactions and the use of remotely sensed measurements to study interactions at the land–atmosphere interface. This special issue of the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences consists of 13 papers investigating various subjects from surface forcing of planetary boundary layer circulations, surface flux modeling-parameterization–retrieval methods, biotic effects on boundary layer

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