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Russ E. Davis, William S. Kessler, and Jeffrey T. Sherman

1. Introduction A primary oceanic transport pathway between the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre and the equator is the low-latitude western boundary current in the Solomon Sea known as the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent (NGCUC). Tsuchiya et al. (1989) argued that the NGCUC is the main source for the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC), a deduction corroborated by the CFC-11 maps of Fine et al. (1994) . The EUC supplies much of the water that upwells along the equator and modulates equatorial sea

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Amandine Schaeffer, Moninya Roughan, and Bradley D. Morris

that drive the cross-shelf dynamics along the continental shelf of eastern Australia. In this region the large-scale circulation is dominated by the East Australian Current (EAC), which forms the western boundary of the South Pacific Ocean’s subtropical gyre. It flows poleward along the coast of eastern Australia transporting heat and biota, as shown in the typical summer condition of sea surface temperature (SST) and geostrophic dynamics ( Fig. 1a ). It thus has impacts on coastal weather systems

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Isabela Astiz Le Bras, Steven R. Jayne, and John M. Toole

1. Introduction In the western North Atlantic, the Gulf Stream carries warm, salty water of tropical and subtropical origin toward the high latitudes, while the deep-reaching deep western boundary current (DWBC) brings cold, fresh water of high-latitude origin equatorward. The combined effect of these two currents is a poleward heat transport in the North Atlantic, aiding in the stabilization of Earth’s climate ( Wunsch 2005 ). The Gulf Stream and DWBC come in close contact at Cape Hatteras

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Xiaomei Yan, Dujuan Kang, Enrique N. Curchitser, and Chongguang Pang

1. Introduction The subtropical Pacific Ocean western boundary currents (WBCs) transport large amounts of heat and salt poleward, playing crucial roles in the global ocean circulation and climate variability ( Hu et al. 2015 ). The Kuroshio, which is the WBC of the North Pacific subtropical gyre, originates from the northern branch of the North Equatorial Current (NEC) and flows along the east coast of Luzon and Taiwan Islands with a speed of 1–1.5 m s −1 ( Nitani 1972 ). By passing over the

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Zheng Wang and Dongliang Yuan

1. Introduction This study is continuation of the work by Wang and Yuan (2012) , which studied the nonlinear dynamics of two equal-transport western boundary currents (WBCs) colliding at a gap. That work is extended in this paper by considering two unequal-transport WBCs colliding at a gap. Existing studies of the colliding nonlinear WBCs have focused mostly on the dynamics of the collision at a nonpermeable wall ( Jiang et al. 1995 ; Cessi and Ierley 1995 ; Dijkstra 2005 ). Nof (1996

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Ru Chen and Stephanie Waterman

boundary current (WBC) extensions and in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). These intense jets have extremely large along-jet transports, are an importance energy source to the eddy field through instability processes, and can serve as cross-jet transport barriers ( Bower et al. 1985 ; Gille et al. 2007 ; Thompson 2008 ; Chen et al. 2014a , b , 2016 ). As a consequence, these jet flows greatly regulate the global tracer and energy budgets and thus climate variability. Unsurprisingly, many

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Bijan Kumar Das, T. S. Anandh, J. Kuttippurath, and Arun Chakraborty

1. Introduction The western boundary current (WBC) of the Bay of Bengal (BOB or the bay), also known as the East India Coastal Current (EICC), follows a seasonal reversal ( Cutler and Swallow 1984 ; Shankar et al. 1996 ; McCreary et al. 1993 , 1996 ; Vinayachandran et al. 1996 ; Sil and Chakraborty 2011 ). The EICC is northward during pre–Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and southward during post-ISM ( Shetye et al. 1990 , 1991 ; Sil and Chakraborty 2011 ). The northward EICC is best

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Astrid Pacini, Robert S. Pickart, Frank Bahr, Daniel J. Torres, Andrée L. Ramsey, James Holte, Johannes Karstensen, Marilena Oltmanns, Fiammetta Straneo, Isabela Astiz Le Bras, G. W. K. Moore, and M. Femke de Jong

exported from the subpolar gyre by way of the boundary current system of the Irminger and Labrador Seas ( Pickart 1992 ; Dickson and Brown 1994 ; Fischer et al. 2010 ) and also via interior pathways ( Lavender et al. 2000 ; Bower et al. 2009 ). In the Irminger Sea, the boundary current system consists of the following components, progressing from onshore to offshore: the East Greenland Coastal Current (EGCC) ( Bacon et al. 2002 ; Sutherland and Pickart 2008 ); the East Greenland/Irminger Current

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Paul G. Myers and Nilgun Kulan

1. Introduction The deep western boundary current (DWBC) transports waters formed by wintertime convection in the northern reaches of the Atlantic Ocean southward toward the equator ( Dengler et al. 2006 ). This transport forms the lower limb of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and is balanced by the transport of warm water northward above the thermocline (e.g., Hirschi and Marotzke 2007 ). A weakening of this circulation, such as by increased freshwater provision to the

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Gordon E. Swaters

1. Introduction This paper is Part II of a two-part theoretical study of the midlatitude–cross-equatorial dynamics of deep western boundary currents (DWBCs) in an idealized differentially rotating meridional basin with parabolic bottom topography (so that the ocean basin shallows on the both the eastern and western sides). In Swaters (2015 , hereinafter Part I) we were able to explicitly solve the leading-order steady-state equations for the nonlinear midlatitude flow along the western

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