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Paul H. Herzegh and Peter V. Hobbs

AUGUST 1981 PAUL H. HERZEGH AND PETER V. HOBBS 1771The Mesoscale and Microscale Structure and Organization of Clouds and Precipitationin Midlatitude Cyclones. IV: Vertical Air Motions and Microphysical Structures ofPrefrontal Surge Clouds and Cold-Frontal Clouds~ PAUL H. HERZEGHThe Center for the Environment and Man, Inc., Hartford, CT 06120 PETER V. HoBBsDepartment of Atmospheric Sciences

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Tsing-Chang Chen, Jenq-Dar Tsay, and Jun Matsumoto

atmospheric response to this heating is the development of divergent circulation. If χ H ≪ and ∇ 2 χ H ≪ , the divergent circulation will be strengthened by the latent heat released from cumulus convection/rainfall, 4) The dynamic–hydrologic–thermodynamic process to intensify CSV( ) The enhancement of air mass flux convergence would lead to the intensification of a CSV( ) through vortex stretching in Eq. (1) . The intensification of a CSV( ) through the multi-interaction of sequential cold surge

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Sylvain Mailler and François Lott

the structure of the North American cold surges, with cold air masses traveling southward from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico ( Colle and Mass 1995 ) and occasionally reaching the eastern Pacific across Central America ( Schultz et al. 1997 ). At D + 4 and after, the composites lose significance more rapidly than in the case of the TP (not shown). The shift of the high pressure anomaly from the northwestern slopes of the Rockies to their eastern slopes between D − 2 and D + 2 explains that T̃

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Nurjanna J. Trilaksono, Shigenori Otsuka, and Shigeo Yoden

airmass transformation of the cold surge that is associated with the Jakarta flood event. The air mass is dry in the Northern Hemisphere, but it gets moistened over the ocean, which is consistent with the description by Johnson and Houze (1987) . To see the vertical extents of the time variations described above, the time–height cross sections of the ensemble mean of the model-simulated quantities averaged over the region of West Java (5.5°–8°S, 105.5°–108.5°E) are shown in Fig. 6 for meridional

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Mi-Kyung Sung, Seok-Woo Son, Changhyun Yoo, Jaeyoung Hwang, and Soon-Il An

propagate a disturbance horizontally rather than changing the strength. On the other hand, the vortex stretching by ageostrophic vertical circulation F stretch Vort modifies the effects of vorticity advection and amplifies a disturbance ( Holton 2004 ). We also considered the effect of diabatic heating, as cold air that surges into the EA coastal region is able to promote the release of considerable amounts of latent and sensible heat from the ocean surface. To solve the equation, a successive

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Lei Song and Renguang Wu

2008 . Atmos. Sci. Lett. , 12 , 273 – 280 , https://doi.org/10.1002/asl.333 . 10.1002/asl.333 Ding , Y. , 1990 : Build-up, air mass transformation and propagation of Siberian high and its relations to cold surge in East Asia . Meteor. Atmos. Phys. , 44 , 281 – 292 , https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01026822 . 10.1007/BF01026822 Ding , Y. , and T. N. Krishnamurti , 1987 : Heat budget of the Siberian high and the winter monsoon . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 115 , 2428 – 2449 , https://doi.org/10

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Linden Claire Ashcroft, Alexandre Bernardes Pezza, and Ian Simmonds

– 592 . Fortune , M. A. , and V. E. Kousky , 1983 : Two severe freezes in Brazil: Precursors and synoptic evolution. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 111 , 181 – 196 . Garreaud , R. D. , 2000 : Cold air incursions over subtropical South America: Mean structure and dynamics. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 128 , 2544 – 2559 . Garreaud , R. D. , 2001 : Subtropical cold surges: Regional aspects and global distribution. Int. J. Climatol. , 21 , 1181 – 1197 . Garreaud , R. D. , and J. M. Wallace , 1998

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Jinlong Huang and Wenshou Tian

-scale cold-air outbreaks 1 month in advance . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 97 , 1475 – 1489 , https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00287.1 . 10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00287.1 Chen , T. C. , W. R. Huang , and J. Yoon , 2004 : Interannual variation of the East Asian cold surge activity . J. Climate , 17 , 401 – 413 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<0401:IVOTEA>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<0401:IVOTEA>2.0.CO;2 Cohen , J. , and Coauthors , 2014 : Recent Arctic amplification and

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Masato I. Nodzu, Shin-Ya Ogino, and Jun Matsumoto

northerly wind in the lower layer below the 850-hPa level. The combination of high pressure with cold air has the same structure and time evolution as a monsoonal pressure surge (e.g., Compo et al. 1999 ), which was explained as a coastal Kelvin wave trapped by the plateau in a pioneering numerical study by Nakamura and Doutani (1985) . The cold air intrudes under the warm air to the south and forms a structure like a cold front almost along the northwestern coast of the South China Sea with a strong

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Lukas Papritz and Thomas Spengler

1. Introduction Marine cold air outbreaks (CAOs) are cold surges occurring in association with the intermittent discharge of cold polar air masses into more temperate latitudes, where they reach comparatively warm waters and are accompanied by large air–sea heat exchanges. There are two main paths for these polar air masses in the Northern Hemisphere ( Iwasaki et al. 2014 ). The first one is directed from the Siberian Arctic to East Asia with dissipation over the Kuroshio, and the second is

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