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Yuanlong Li, Weiqing Han, Lei Zhang, and Fan Wang

in biodiversity patterns ( Depczynski et al. 2013 ; Pearce and Feng 2013 ; Wernberg et al. 2013 ). This event was succeeded by two weaker but also influential warming events in the following two austral summers, exerting persistent stress on local environment ( Feng et al. 2015 ; Zhang et al. 2017 ). Decadal SST variability in the SEIO is invoked to explain the reemergence of Ningaloo Niño/Niña. Specifically, the rapid decadal warming of the SEIO under La Niña–like condition of the Pacific

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Hui Zhou, Dongliang Yuan, Lina Yang, Xiang Li, and William Dewar

1. Introduction Studies have suggested that the decadal North Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) are dominated by their first empirical orthogonal function, often called the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) ( Mantua et al. 1997 ; Zhang et al. 1997 ). Several studies have indicated that the PDO is not a single physical mode of oceanic variability, but rather the sum of several processes with different dynamic origins ( Newman et al. 2003 ; Vimont 2005 ; Schneider and Cornuelle

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Gareth J. Marshall

of the relationship between the circulation patterns and their proposed drivers (or statistical predictors) within the climate system may also be nonstationary, perhaps in response to changes in the background state (e.g., Kolstad and Screen 2019 ). Popova (2018) described decadal-scale variability in the climatic impact of the patterns in the north of Eurasia linked to switches in the rate of global warming. Moreover, modeling studies suggest that as the Arctic warms further the links between

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B. Yu, A. Shabbar, and F. W. Zwiers

to warm and cold ENSO events rather than a phase shift between El Niño and La Niña height patterns over the North Pacific. Recent studies further suggest that the variability of the Aleutian low pressure center and the associated SSTs in the North Pacific regulate the ENSO response over North America ( Yang et al. 2002 ; Lau et al. 2004 ). The variability of the Aleutian low pressure center, which exhibits remarkable decadal variability (e.g., Deser et al. 2004 ), is represented by the North

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Seth Travis and Bo Qiu

–SEC region. These broad patterns affecting South Pacific Subtropical Gyre circulation could manifest in the STCC–SEC region, altering the state of the ocean and leading to enhanced eddy activity. An increasingly long record of observations in the region allows us to improve our understanding of the basic state of the STCC–SEC region and the slow, decadal variability from this mean state. This paper works to expand upon those previous findings by providing a detailed description of the basic state of the

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Houk Paek and Huei-Ping Huang

models can produce a reliable long-term climatology without invoking a flux correction for air–sea interaction. The transition to CMIP5 saw the emergence of “earth system” models with dynamic treatments for the global biogeochemical cycle, among other processes. The scope of the multimodel intercomparison has also continued to expand, with a notable new focus being the validation and intercomparison of decadal-to-interdecadal variability. It is now recognized that a correct representation of decadal

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M. N. Khaliq and P. Gachon

1. Introduction It is important to explore the linkages between large-scale climate variability and regional-scale hydroclimatic processes because interannual and decadal-scale climate variability is instrumental in planning regional water resources, which are of significant ecological, cultural, and economic value. In some of the previous studies, the variability of winter precipitation and temperature in northwestern North America (NWNA) was associated with the Pacific decadal oscillation

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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Bunmei Taguchi, Masato Mori, and Yu Kosaka

oceanic Rossby waves, yields meridionally confined persistent SST anomalies ( Seager et al. 2001 ; Schneider et al. 2002 ; Nonaka et al. 2006 ; Taguchi et al. 2007 ; Newman et al. 2016 ). Indeed, decadal SST variability in winter exhibits a primary maximum off the east coast of Japan along the SAFZ and a secondary maximum over the subtropical frontal zone ( Nakamura and Kazmin 2003 ). The SST variability in SAFZ exhibits no significant simultaneous correlation with the tropical SST variability

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Guobin Fu, Stephen P. Charles, Jingjie Yu, and Changming Liu

requires further investigation. The primary objectives of this research are to 1) analyze the observed climatic variability in the NCP region during the last four decades, using Kendall’s test to detect any significant trends in precipitation or temperature; and 2) extract the future climate scenarios for the region from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) GCMs and discuss the potential impacts of projected climate changes on regional water resource

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Ling Ling Liu and Rui Xin Huang

. Water mass formation/erosion and the subsequent modification have been widely studied over the past decades. In particular, the subject of mode water, including its generation, transport, transformation and variability, has been widely studied by many investigators. Hanawa and Talley (2001) provided a thorough review for this subject and a comprehensive list of the most important and relevant references. Since water mass formation and erosion are complicated phenomena, there are different

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