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Rachel Hauser

restrain global warming concurrently with global mitigation and adaptation efforts ( Blackstock et al. 2009 ; Caldeira and Keith 2010 ; Keith et al. 2010 ; Task Force on Climate Remediation Research 2011 ). Similar to geoengineering, cloud seeding techniques were explored beginning in the 1940s as a means for humans to moderate extreme weather, with the intent being, as appropriate to the situation, to augment or suppress rain or snow, hail, fog, lightning, or severe storms so as to reduce loss of

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Ben Orlove

subway stations, and in the lobbies of apartment houses. Though the lack of coordination of evacuation efforts in the United States has often been described as an obstacle to effective preparedness, it may have been a positive force, at least with this slow-moving storm, because it allowed elected officials who were particularly concerned to order evacuations early and to stimulate others to enact similar measures. This perception of a severe risk led residents to stay at home. Television programs

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Thomas R. Karl

mitigation options (e.g., widespread adoption of biofuels), so those options with the largest negative impacts can be identified, and decision makers can make informed choices about the costs and benefits inherent in different strategies. Enhanced understanding of how society can adapt to climate variability and climate change : Given the large climate forcing already produced by humanity, the need to adapt to climate variability and climate change is inevitable, regardless of mitigation efforts. The

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Douglas Hayhoe, Shawn Bullock, and Katharine Hayhoe

scoring low overall on the test. This assumes a strong coherence among concepts being tested, such as what you would expect in a questionnaire on Newton’s laws of force, for example. 8 In this climate change questionnaire, the average item discrimination index was only 0.197. In fact, only 10 items had a discrimination index equal to or greater than 0.333, compared with 4 in the randomly generated data. The frequency histograms for the real data and randomly generated data are strikingly similar. If

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Duncan Cook and Sally Garrett

eastward into the less-patrolled, deep open waters of the Indian Ocean. By focusing on this region, with its large rises in piracy and limited policing, we may tease out the role that wind and waves have played in limiting recent piracy. Second, the waters east of Somalia are open to the full force of both summer and winter monsoon processes, with intense southwesterly surface winds and rough seas characterizing the boreal summer months. From a climatological perspective, the Arabian Sea and the Indian

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Nancy E. Westcott

McConnell Air Force base, it was reported that crews in the cockpits of B-47s were enduring heat as high as 157°F before the airplanes were airborne. Afternoon training flights were temporarily discontinued; however, 0500 to 1200 LST flights were doubled, and nighttime flights were extended from 1830 to 0230 LST ( Kansas City Star , 17 July 1954). People had difficulty sleeping because of the warm nighttime temperatures, with some seeking refuge outside, in their backyards, in local parks, or in their

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Gabrielle Wong-Parodi, Baruch Fischhoff, and Ben Strauss

.g., flood vents), adaptive building uses, and flood insurance ( Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force 2011 ; McDaniels et al. 1999 ; Samuels et al. 2006 ). The success of these programs depends on local residents’ willingness and ability to undertake those measures. Although individual adaptation measures have demonstrated ability to reduce flood damage ( Kreibich et al. 2005 ; Schanze 2008 ), relatively few people take them voluntarily ( Kunreuther 1996 ). A recent review found that

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Matthew J. Widlansky, H. Annamalai, Stephen B. Gingerich, Curt D. Storlazzi, John J. Marra, Kevin I. Hodges, Barry Choy, and Akio Kitoh

, including Pamela (1976), Paka (1997), and Chataan (2002), yet the military and civilian population has consistently proved resilient. Fig . 3. Photograph of devastation from Super Typhoon Karen (1962), which destroyed 95% of Guam’s homes as well as caused severe damage to Andersen Air Force Base and Naval Base Guam. [Image courtesy of the 36th Wing History Office via http://www.andersen.af.mil/Portals/43/36%20WSA%20TENANT/ComRel/Andersen%20Heritage%20Pamphlet.pdf .] To the east, near Hawaii, the ocean

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Kendal McGuffie and Ann Henderson-Sellers

the British settlement was of convicts, their guards, and administrators, so that although there was a clear need to understand climate for effective agriculture and to nurture water supplies, the invading force had little or no meteorological training ( Phillip 1789 ). b. Climate reconstruction Historical records of temperature are a constant source of discussion in climate science (e.g., Nicholls 1988 ; Jones and Henderson-Sellers 1992 ; Jones et al. 2001 ; Wheeler et al. 2010 ; Brázdil et

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Thomas W. Corringham and Daniel R. Cayan

nonresidential), the flood zone in which the property is located, and the total payment for structural damages and damages to contents. In a supplementary dataset, the (available upon request from the NFIP) annual number of policies in force, coverage levels, and premium payments are available at the community level. As of policy-year 2017, there were approximately 392 000 policyholders in the 1807 participating NFIP communities in the western 11 states. In 1978 there were less than 144 000 policyholders

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