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Melissa A. Nigro and John J. Cassano

parallel to the Transantarctic Mountains, is driven by a combination of katabatic drainage, mesoscale, and synoptic forcing ( Parish et al. 2006 ; Nigro et al. 2012 ; Seefeldt and Cassano 2012 ). Katabatic winds are forced by negatively buoyant air flowing over sloped terrain ( Parish 1988 ). In the region of the RIS, katabatic winds flow through the Siple Coast confluence zone and the glacial valleys of the Transantarctic Mountains. These winds drain the cold, continental air from the interior of

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Owen E. Thompson, Philip A. Arkin, and William D. Bonner

1012MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEWVoLo~ 104Diurnal Va/iations of the Summertime Wind and Force Field at Three Midwestern Locationst Owv.~ E. T~o~sos~ IBM Ttunnas J. Walson Re~ar~h C,ml~,, Y~k~ Hdg~, N. Y. 1059g P~zxv A. ~~ Program i~ M~o~gy, Uni~y of Mary,S, Co~gz Park 2~ W~r~ D. Bo~2~ N~i~l M~olog~ C~, Mar~ Hdg~. Md. 2~2J (M~us~pt ~ved 16 J~ 1976, ~ m~ fo~ 17 May 1976) A comprehensive summary of diurnal wind vsadations in the midwestern region of the United

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Cecile Penland

OCTOBER 1989 CECILE PENLAND 2165Random Forcing and Forecasting Using Principal Oscillation Pattern Analysis CECILE PENLANDDepartment of Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, California(Manuscript received 28 October 1988, in final form 1 May 1989)ABSTRACT The effects of random forcing and deterministic feedback are combined in a measured multivariate timeseries. It is shown here

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Richard E. Carbone, William A. Cooper, and Wen-Chau Lee

3466MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEWVOLUME 123Forcing of Flow Reversal along the Windward Slopes of HawaiiRICHARD E. CARBONE, WILLIAM A. COOPER, AND WEN-CHAu LEENational Center for Atmospheric Research, * Boulder, Colorado(Manuscript received 3 January 1995, in final form 27 June 1995)ABSTRACT Hawaii is an island approximately 4 km high, the lower portion of which is immersed in an easterly tradewind layer that is typically 2 km deep. Blockage of the trade wind combined with diurnal, thermally

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Zavis̆a I. Janjić

OCTOBER 1989 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 2285On the Pressure Gradient Force Error in o-Coordinate Spectral Models ZAVI~A I. JANJI~Institute for Meteorology, Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, Yugoslavia16 August 1988 and 10 April 1989ABSTRACT The pressure gradient force error of the spectral technique used in combination with the a vertical coordinatewas examined in an idealized case

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David M. Straus and Yuhong Yi

to changes in tropical forcing ( Hoskins and Karoly 1981 ), barotropic/baroclinic instability of the three-dimensional time-mean flow ( Frederiksen 1982 ; Simmons et al. 1983 ), and transitions between large-scale multiple equilibria ( Charney and deVore 1979 ; Charney and Straus 1980 ; Rambaldi and Mo 1984 ; LeGras and Ghil 1985 ; Benzi et al. 1986b ). It has become clear that the mutual interactions between planetary- and synoptic-scale motions play a very large role in the evolution of

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Brian F. Jewett and Robert B. Wilhelmson

is true for storms forming along a dryline or front as well as convection encountering a boundary after initiation (e.g., Markowski et al. 1998a , hereafter M98 ; Gilmore and Wicker 2002 ). The environment in the vicinity of severe thunderstorms is often very complex. Local forcing and the associated horizontal gradients in thermodynamic conditions and shear have been documented on meso- γ scales ( Mueller et al. 1993 ; Thompson and Edwards 2000 ). Contributions to the local vertical shear

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Hugh E. Willoughby

intensify while maintaining gradient balance between the momentum and mass distributions. To keep the primary vortex nearly balanced, the forcing must change slowly, be weak enough to keep the induced secondary flow small relative to the primary flow, and be predominantly symmetric about the axis of vortex rotation (e.g., Shapiro and Willoughby 1982 ). In quantitative terms, balance requires that the characteristic time for appreciable intensity change be long compared with the local inertial period 2

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hour througi a calm at- mosphere will raise the kites to the height they would attain in afavorable natural wind, while the force of strong winds can be moder- ated by steaming with the wind. I n this way kites can be flown on board a steamer under almost all conditions and probably more easily than on land, since the steadier winds at sea facilitate launchin them. Wherever these observations in the upper air may be made, &ere iswind that blows at least 12 miles an !tl our. I n certain types of

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Adrian M. Loftus, Daniel B. Weber, and Charles A. Doswell III

avenue to follow, therefore, was to replace the IB with a mechanism for producing sustained ascent. For simplicity, it was assumed that the time scale of such ascent would be much longer than that of a deep convective cloud, which has a time scale associated with how long it takes an air parcel to rise through the depth of the cloud (of order 20 min). Thus, at least to begin the study, we assumed that the forcing for ascent would be constant in time; this is not necessary, but it does represent a

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