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Qian Song, Gabriel A. Vecchi, and Anthony J. Rosati

Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO; Bjerknes 1969 ) are not active in the Indian Ocean. Thus, many studies have focused on the interannual Indian Ocean variability resulting from external forcing, in particular that driven by ENSO (e.g., Nigam and Shen 1993 ; Tourre and White 1995 ; Klein et al. 1999 ; Venzke et al. 2000 ; Lau and Nath 2003 ). The ENSO-related SST anomalies (SSTAs) in the Indian Ocean are basin wide and peak about one to two seasons after the maximum of the SSTAs in the central

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Roxana C. Wajsowicz

Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Coupled Forecast System (CFS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP) system. There are two types of climate prediction problem ( Lorenz 1975 ). In the boundary value problem, the task is to assess the change in climate due to some change in external forcing, for example, anthropogenic changes. In the initial value problem considered here, compare with ENSO forecasting, the task is to

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Joaquim Ballabrera-Poy, Eric Hackert, Raghu Murtugudde, and Antonio J. Busalacchi

levels and the low frequency forcing of the linear model is unable to simulate the intraseasonal variability. Even in an OGCM, special care will be required to optimize the mooring array in this region. Despite this fact, the agreement between both arrays is striking in the relative amount of moorings that both arrays propose for the different longitudinal lines. The geographical distribution around 65°E is very similar. Using the same number of moorings, the coarser meridional resolution around the

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Peter R. Oke and Andreas Schiller

, with and without Argo) for each variable, making a total of 24 OSSEs. These RF maps are produced for a grid that has resolutions of 6° and 2.5° in the zonal and meridional directions, respectively. This grid is deliberately chosen to be much coarser than the model grid in order to force there to be more structure in the consolidated mooring array. The RF map for D20 ( Fig. 8a ) demonstrates that D20 is well observed with observations around 12°S in the central and western Indian Ocean, and off the

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