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Robert A. Houze Jr.

1. Introduction It is tempting to think of clouds in the inner regions of tropical cyclones as cumulonimbus that just happen to be located in a spinning vortex. However, this view is oversimplified, as the clouds in a tropical cyclone are intricately connected with the dynamics of the cyclone itself. Perhaps up to now it has not been important to know the detailed inner workings of tropical cyclone clouds. However, as high-resolution full-physics models become more widely used, forecasting the

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Paul M. Markowski

right (southern) flanks of the anticyclonically rotating storms, in which the updrafts would have been on the left (northern) flanks ( Klemp and Wilhelmson 1978a ; Wilhelmson and Klemp 1978 ; Rotunno and Klemp 1982 ). c. Tornado forecasting based on hook echo detection The forecasting potential of hook echo detection began to be explored in the mid-1960s. Sadowski (1958) documented a tornado that occurred after the hook echo became visible (in fact, the hook echo was becoming less discernible

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J. R. Garratt

long period integrations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soe., 98, 809-832.Cox, C. S., and W. H. Munk, 1954: Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter. J. Mar. Res., 13, 198-227.Cressman, G. P., 1960: Improved terrain effects in barotropic forecasts. Mon. Wea. Rcv., 88, 327-342.Davidson, K. L., 1974: Observational results on the influence of stability and wind-wave coupling on momentum transfer and turbulent fluctuation over ocean waves. Bound. Layer Meteor., 6, 305-331. , and A

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Dayton G. Vincent

ClimateResearch Programme/Tropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere (WCRP/TOGA) archive II European Centrefor Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses. In January, the most prominent feature is thetrough of low pressure that extends eastward from themonsoonal low centered over northern Australia acrossthe Pacific to a location near the equator and 130-W.The western part of this trough is commensurate withthe zonal portion of the SPCZ. Also shown is the troughassociated with the diagonal portion of the SPCZ

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Roland A. Madden and Paul R. Julian

. Much is still to be learned. The oscillation isan important part of the general circulation, and because of its relatively long time scale, may help longrange forecasts (Cadet and Daniel 1988; Krishnamurtiet al. 1990; Ferranti et al. 1990; yon Storch and Xu1990). It is clear that as understanding of the oscillationcontinues to improve so will the understanding andlong-range prediction of weather and climate. Acknowledgments. We thank T. N. Krishnamurti forencouraging us to write this review. D

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