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Veljko Petković, Christian D. Kummerow, David L. Randel, Jeffrey R. Pierce, and John K. Kodros

-changing climate. Despite a long, albeit sparse, record [first known observations date back 2000 BCE ( Wang and Zhang 1988 )], globally complete precipitation measurements did not become available until the modern era of satellite Earth-observing systems that employ infrared and microwave radiometric techniques (e.g., Atlas and Thiele 1981 ). Achieving measurement standards of rainfall in atypical (i.e., extreme) environments on small spatiotemporal scales across the globe, however, has turned out to be more

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Jackson Tan, Walter A. Petersen, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, and Yudong Tian

), the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA; Huffman et al. 2007 ), the Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH; Joyce et al. 2004 ; Joyce and Xie 2011 ), and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks–Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS; Hong et al. 2004 ). These gridded precipitation datasets use a blend of data from various sources with advanced techniques to provide a near-global coverage with high spatial and

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Catherine M. Naud, James F. Booth, Matthew Lebsock, and Mircea Grecu

are the AMSR-E precipitation product ( Kummerow et al. 2011 ), the GPCP One-Degree Daily precipitation product (GPCP-1DD; Huffman et al. 2001 ), and precipitation from two reanalyses: the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim; Dee et al. 2011 ) and the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2; Gelaro et al. 2017 ). The aim of this study is not to search for the best product but instead to diagnose specific

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Kamil Mroz, Alessandro Battaglia, Timothy J. Lang, Simone Tanelli, and Gian Franco Sacco

surface reference technique (SRT) would be 3.5 dB, marginally higher than 3 dB (i.e., a factor of 2), practically signaling that half of the footprint is fully attenuating and the other half is barely producing any attenuation. Because of 5 dB of attenuation produced by the snow-bearing column, the Ka SRT PIA adds up to 8.1 dB. Therefore, the ratio of the two path-integrated attenuations ( ) is equal to 2.3, which is well below the trigger NUBF detection threshold of 4. Therefore, this profile would

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Kenneth D. Leppert II and Daniel J. Cecil

, . 10.1029/2004RS003129 Hou , A. Y. , and Coauthors , 2014 : The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 95 , 701 – 722 , . 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00164.1 Kalina , E. A. , K. Friedrich , B. C. Motta , W. Deierling , G. T. Stano , and N. N. Rydell , 2016 : Colorado plowable hailstorms: Synoptic weather, radar, and lightning characteristics . Wea. Forecasting , 31

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