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Diandong Ren, Lance M. Leslie, Rong Fu, Robert E. Dickinson, and Xiang Xin

an important factor in desertification over mountainous regions, because they are very effective in transferring biomass from live to dead respiring pools ( Ren et al. 2009 ). Forecasting landslide timings and impacts has been a significant research topic in geotechnical engineering over the last four decades. However, because of the complexity of natural conditions (e.g., geometrical and geological variability, nonlinear time-displacements relationships, and the superposition of seasonal

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Amanda Markert, Robert Griffin, Kevin Knupp, Andrew Molthan, and Tim Coleman

parameters, and hybrid approaches. Traditional atmospheric modeling techniques implement lookup tables that equate a land-cover class to a representative z value derived from field observations ( Borak et al. 2005 ; Jasinski et al. 2006 ; Zheng et al. 2014 ). These approaches fail to capture variation within land-cover classes and account for seasonal vegetation changes, resulting in errors in heat fluxes and skin temperature values used in weather forecasting models ( Zheng et al. 2014

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Daniel E. Christiansen, Steven L. Markstrom, and Lauren E. Hay

agricultural production and water supply in the study basins. An increase in temperature has the potential to impact agricultural production due to the northern migration of competing plants and an increase in insects that is expected to accompany the forecast climate changes ( Janetos et al. 2008 ). In the fire-prone areas of the Rockies and Sierra Nevada study basins, an increase in GSL can cause an increase in tree mortality, which can increase the fuel sources for potential wildfires ( Ryan et al. 2008

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Weile Wang, Bruce T. Anderson, Dara Entekhabi, Dong Huang, Yin Su, Robert K. Kaufmann, and Ranga B. Myneni

suggest that satellite datasets may also provide information for studying large-scale vegetation feedbacks on climate variability. Recently, some studies tried to address this question using correlation-based statistical techniques (e.g., Brunsell 2006 ; Liu et al. 2006 ; Notaro et al. 2006 ). For instance, Liu et al. ( Liu et. al 2006) and Notaro et al. ( Notaro et al. 2006) used lead/lag correlations and a statistical metric previously applied to ocean–atmosphere feedbacks ( Frankignoul et al

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K. Dimitriou, G. R. McGregor, P. A. Kassomenos, and A. K. Paschalidou

variability of excess winter mortality ( Donaldson 2010 ; McGregor 2005 ; Public Health England 2013 ; Hajat and Kovats 2014 ). To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time that back trajectory analysis has been applied to the examination of winter mortality in the United Kingdom and perhaps elsewhere. Back trajectory analysis is one of a number of techniques applied in fathoming airmass history ( Fleming et al. 2012 ). The development of the technique can be traced back to Petterssen (1940

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Diandong Ren and Lance M. Leslie

consortia to deploy floating natural gas platforms (largest in the world), instead of the conventional gas riser technology, for gas delivery also imposes demand on accurate forecasting in a region where winds of up to 400 kph with seas of 30 m have been recorded (e.g., TC Olivia 1996). There is thus great interest in knowing how the statistics of tropical cyclone number, intensity, and landfall locations change in a warming climate. As a first step, we would like to investigate past changes in cyclone

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Dr. Elisabeth Vollmer and Prof. Oliver Mußhoff

with so-called risk-based decisions. For example, if farmers use preharvest marketing techniques, they need information on their expected quality in addition to information about their expected harvest quantity due to production risk ( Moschini and Hennessy 2001 ). In addition, these variations in quality are an important challenge for dealers, mills, and other customers in the market, since a constant quality of the goods is required ( Jarvis et al. 2008 ). The crude protein content in particular

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G. T. Aronica and B. Bonaccorso

-of-river plants, as is the case of the present study, is more vulnerable than impoundment hydropower plants to alteration of rainfall and temperature regimes due to climate change, there is a further interest in modeling approaches for forecasting flow regimes of the Alcantara River under different climatic conditions. To this end, the emphasis of this study is placed on determining and comparing flow duration curves (FDCs), as well as the resulting utilization curves, for current and future scenarios. One of

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Taikan Oki and Y. C. Sud

., 1993 ) used a template of 35 river basins in 2.5° × 2.5° grid boxes. Atmospheric water vapor convergence estimated from four-dimensional data assimilation products of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts from 1985 through 1988 were compared with observed runoff using the above template. Subsequently, Oki et al. ( Oki et al., 1995a ; Oki et al.,1995b ) extended the analysis to 70 river basins and found that the procedure was usable for investigating and evaluating global water

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Lauren E. Hay, Jacob LaFontaine, and Steven L. Markstrom

projections are required, based on either statistical or dynamical downscaling techniques. An overview of statistical and dynamical GCM downscaling techniques for hydrologic modeling is presented in Fowler et al. ( Fowler et al. 2007 ). Statistical downscaling uses empirical relations between features reliably simulated by a GCM at gridbox scales and surface predictands at subgrid scales. Dynamical downscaling uses simulations from regional climate models with initial and lateral boundary conditions from

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