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Timothy J. Cady, David A. Rahn, Nathaniel A. Brunsell, and Ward Lyles

heat flux ( Oke 1988 ; Taha 1997 ; Arnfield 2003 ). Consequently, cities tend to exhibit higher temperatures (e.g., Oke 1995 ; Tran et al. 2006 ; Imhoff et al. 2010 ; Peng et al. 2011 ; Monaghan et al. 2014 ; Azevedo et al. 2016 ) when compared to their rural surroundings, a phenomenon known as the urban heat island (UHI; Oke 1982 ). UHIs are magnified by anthropogenic processes, most notably from the use of air conditioning systems and emissions from vehicles and industrial activity

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Dan Li and Elie Bou-Zeid

). Epidemiological studies have found a 4.5% increase in mortality risk for every 1°C increase in heat wave intensity, and a 0.38% increase for every 1-day increase in heat wave duration in the United States ( Anderson and Bell 2011 ). Cities are more vulnerable to heat waves than rural areas because of the preexisting urban heat island (UHI) effect; that is, cities are generally warmer than the surrounding rural areas ( Oke 1982 ; Grimmond 2007 ). In addition, more than 50% of the world population is currently

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Jiachuan Yang and Elie Bou-Zeid

1. Introduction The increasing shift in population toward cities drives the continual expansion of urban land use worldwide ( Seto et al. 2012 ). The concomitant urban heat islands already affect more than 4 billion city residents and are intensifying along with their impacts on health, energy consumption, ecosystem services, and water and air quality ( Patz et al. 2005 ; Grimm et al. 2008 ; Rizwan et al. 2008 ). Repercussions of these impacts extend far beyond the footprint of urban

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Ning An, Jingjing Dou, Jorge E. González-Cruz, Robert D. Bornstein, Shiguang Miao, and Lin Li

island (UHI) effect, a phenomenon in which urban built-up areas experience warmer temperatures than the surrounding rural areas ( Oke 1982 ). The UHI effect mainly results from the alteration of land surfaces with built materials such as asphalt and concrete, which have significantly different thermal bulk properties and surface radiative properties than natural land cover. In addition, anthropogenic heat emissions generated by human activities from buildings, transportation, and human metabolism

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Hongbin Zhang, Naoki Sato, Takeki Izumi, Keisuke Hanaki, and Toshiya Aramaki

-called urban heat island (UHI) effect, was first observed in London, England, by Luke Howard in the early eighteenth century and has since been reported in crowded and highly urbanized cities all over the world (e.g., Chandler 1965 ; Yoshino 1975 ; Landsberg 1981 ). Urban warming not only damages the amenities of cities, but also increases energy demand for air conditioning, degrades air quality, adversely affects urban climate, and even damages human health. One goal of contemporary urban environmental

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Hadas Saaroni and Baruch Ziv

1. Introduction The urban heat island (UHI) has been studied mostly through the temperature differences between urban and neighboring rural stations (Δ T u − r ). These studies refer to the “canopy-layer heat island” ( Oke 1976 , 1987 , 252–302) via screen-level air temperatures (∼2 m AGL). Such an approach may be found to be problematic because Δ T u − r may be influenced by differences in topographic posting between the urban and the rural regions and by spatial and temporal variations in

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Dirk Wolters and Theo Brandsma

1. Introduction In the past in the Netherlands, research on the urban heat island (UHI) has been scarce. Two published observational studies in Dutch cities are known: one intensive observational campaign in the early 1970s in the city of Utrecht by Conrads (1975) and one new study by Steeneveld et al. (2011) . Although a fair number of observational studies have been done in other countries, because of differences in climatic conditions and building manners it is unclear to what degree

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Da-Lin Zhang, Yi-Xuan Shou, Russell R. Dickerson, and Fei Chen

island (UHI) effect could influence regional climate. These UHI effects are often responsible for heat stress in the summer ( Kunkel et al. 1996 ). UHI effects can exacerbate the air pollution. Weaver et al. (2009) summarized model results indicating that increasing temperatures will increase U.S. ozone air pollution [see also Banta et al. (1998) , Cheng and Byun (2008) , and Jacob and Winner (2009) ]. Observations over the past 20 years show that such a climate change penalty is already

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K. W. Oleson, G. B. Bonan, J. Feddema, and M. Vertenstein

1. Introduction Urban ecosystems can significantly alter the radiative, thermal, moisture, and aerodynamic characteristics of the land surface ( Landsberg 1981 ; Oke 1987 ; Bonan 2002 ; Arnfield 2003 ). As a consequence of these changes, urban climates can differ significantly from surrounding natural ecosystems, often resulting in urban heat islands (e.g., Landsberg 1981 ). The simulation of urban climate impacts requires two major components: 1) the representation of the physical

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Chuan-Yao Lin, Wan-Chin Chen, Pao-Liang Chang, and Yang-Fan Sheng

1. Introduction The significance of the interactions between urbanization and the atmosphere environment is becoming more and more evident. Rapid progress in industrialization and urbanization has resulted in environmental problems such as increasing energy consumption and air pollution, deterioration of visibility, a significant urban heat island (UHI) effect, and even local (regional) climate change. ( Oke 1982 ; Grimmond and Oke 1995 ; Atkinson 2003 ; Arnfield 2003 ; Jin et al. 2005

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