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Ning An, Jingjing Dou, Jorge E. González-Cruz, Robert D. Bornstein, Shiguang Miao, and Lin Li

island (UHI) effect, a phenomenon in which urban built-up areas experience warmer temperatures than the surrounding rural areas ( Oke 1982 ). The UHI effect mainly results from the alteration of land surfaces with built materials such as asphalt and concrete, which have significantly different thermal bulk properties and surface radiative properties than natural land cover. In addition, anthropogenic heat emissions generated by human activities from buildings, transportation, and human metabolism

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Hongbin Zhang, Naoki Sato, Takeki Izumi, Keisuke Hanaki, and Toshiya Aramaki

-called urban heat island (UHI) effect, was first observed in London, England, by Luke Howard in the early eighteenth century and has since been reported in crowded and highly urbanized cities all over the world (e.g., Chandler 1965 ; Yoshino 1975 ; Landsberg 1981 ). Urban warming not only damages the amenities of cities, but also increases energy demand for air conditioning, degrades air quality, adversely affects urban climate, and even damages human health. One goal of contemporary urban environmental

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Hadas Saaroni and Baruch Ziv

1. Introduction The urban heat island (UHI) has been studied mostly through the temperature differences between urban and neighboring rural stations (Δ T u − r ). These studies refer to the “canopy-layer heat island” ( Oke 1976 , 1987 , 252–302) via screen-level air temperatures (∼2 m AGL). Such an approach may be found to be problematic because Δ T u − r may be influenced by differences in topographic posting between the urban and the rural regions and by spatial and temporal variations in

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Dirk Wolters and Theo Brandsma

1. Introduction In the past in the Netherlands, research on the urban heat island (UHI) has been scarce. Two published observational studies in Dutch cities are known: one intensive observational campaign in the early 1970s in the city of Utrecht by Conrads (1975) and one new study by Steeneveld et al. (2011) . Although a fair number of observational studies have been done in other countries, because of differences in climatic conditions and building manners it is unclear to what degree

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Da-Lin Zhang, Yi-Xuan Shou, Russell R. Dickerson, and Fei Chen

island (UHI) effect could influence regional climate. These UHI effects are often responsible for heat stress in the summer ( Kunkel et al. 1996 ). UHI effects can exacerbate the air pollution. Weaver et al. (2009) summarized model results indicating that increasing temperatures will increase U.S. ozone air pollution [see also Banta et al. (1998) , Cheng and Byun (2008) , and Jacob and Winner (2009) ]. Observations over the past 20 years show that such a climate change penalty is already

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Chuan-Yao Lin, Wan-Chin Chen, Pao-Liang Chang, and Yang-Fan Sheng

1. Introduction The significance of the interactions between urbanization and the atmosphere environment is becoming more and more evident. Rapid progress in industrialization and urbanization has resulted in environmental problems such as increasing energy consumption and air pollution, deterioration of visibility, a significant urban heat island (UHI) effect, and even local (regional) climate change. ( Oke 1982 ; Grimmond and Oke 1995 ; Atkinson 2003 ; Arnfield 2003 ; Jin et al. 2005

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Israel Lopez-Coto, Micheal Hicks, Anna Karion, Ricardo K. Sakai, Belay Demoz, Kuldeep Prasad, and James Whetstone

clear from previous studies that there is no single configuration that works best under all circumstances, and validation for specific areas and periods are required. In this work, we intend to better understand the performance of eight configurations of WRF over the Washington, D.C.–Baltimore area during winter, to uncover similarities and differences in PBL parameterizations regarding PBLH and urban heat island related variables and the impacts on tracer transport with the aim of identifying the

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K. W. Oleson, G. B. Bonan, J. Feddema, and M. Vertenstein

1. Introduction Urban ecosystems can significantly alter the radiative, thermal, moisture, and aerodynamic characteristics of the land surface ( Landsberg 1981 ; Oke 1987 ; Bonan 2002 ; Arnfield 2003 ). As a consequence of these changes, urban climates can differ significantly from surrounding natural ecosystems, often resulting in urban heat islands (e.g., Landsberg 1981 ). The simulation of urban climate impacts requires two major components: 1) the representation of the physical

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Robert Schoetter, Julia Hidalgo, Renaud Jougla, Valéry Masson, Mario Rega, and Julien Pergaud

to winter storms ( Pinto et al. 2010 ), ocean modeling ( Cassou et al. 2011 ), and the urban heat island effect ( Hoffmann et al. 2018 ). SDD is thus mainly applied to meteorological phenomena, which are strongly influenced by the prevailing complex topography. The benefit of employing a physically based high-resolution numerical model is highest in these applications. SDD is subject to two different types of uncertainty. On the one hand there is the uncertainty due to biases in the large

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Yu Yan Cui and Benjamin de Foy

1. Introduction Urbanization has caused cities to experience higher temperatures than the surrounding countryside does, a phenomenon known as the urban heat island (UHI). UHIs can enhance the formation, concentration, and transportation of urban ground-level ozone and other air pollutants ( Yoshikado and Tsuchida 1996 ; Saitoh et al. 1996 ; Chen et al. 2003 ). Moreover, summer heat-wave events can exacerbate the mortality resulting from heat stroke and air-quality problems ( Meehl and Stocker

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