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D. G. JAMES

of the hazards involved in inverting the radiation integral. It is shownin the second experiment that realistic temperature profiles can be obtained when some smoothing of the observationsis introduced.1. INTRODUCTIONKaplan [2] has described how the vertical temperatureprofile of the atmosphere may be obtained by measuringradiances in certain regions of the 15-p band of carbondioxide from a satellite. In order to examine this propo-sition practically, a suitable infrared spectrometer

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PAUL A. DAVIS

Vieaee, Mr. R.obertL. Mancuso, Mr. John D. Weaver, and Mr. James R. Moeller.REFERENCES1. W. It. Bandeen, R. E. Samuelson, and I. Strange, "TIROS I11 Radiation Data User's Manual Supplement," Goddard Space Flight Center, Dec. 1963, 56 pp.2. J. A. Brown, Jr., "A Diagnostic Study of Tropospheric DiabaticSeptember 1965 Paul A. Davis 545Heating and the Generation of Available Potential Energy,''Tellus vol. 16, No. 3, Aug. 1964, pp. 371-388.3. P. F. Clapp, "Comments on `Analysis of Satellite Infrared

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Chu-Chun Huang, Shu-Hua Chen, Yi-Chiu Lin, Kenneth Earl, Toshihisa Matsui, Hsiang-He Lee, I-Chun Tsai, Jen-Ping Chen, and Chao-Tzuen Cheng

and dust–cloud interactions, to ensure that the simulated atmospheric conditions are realistic. The model’s synoptic-scale meteorological features are evaluated by comparing model results to ERA-Interim reanalysis data, while the simulated dust fields are evaluated against MODIS AOD observations. The model representation of the MCS is verified with the global infrared radiation (IR) brightness temperature (BT) dataset created by National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate

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WILLIAM C. SHEN and WILLIAM L. SMITH

vapor channelstandard presqure levelsfmm the satellite infrared spectmm- alone explained 72 percent of the variance of the pre-rter I3 (sIRf3-B) radiation observations taken from the cipitable water. This method was used to specify theNimbus 4 satellite. The method was verified with coinci- optimum SIRS-B spectral intervals for future waterdent radiosonde data. The relative error of SIRS-derived vapor sounding.I1. INTRODUCTIONThe launch of the Nimbus 3 satellite in 1969 introduceda new era in the

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C. M. R. Platt, David W. Reynolds, and N. L. Abshire

method of analysis was developed to separate out the cloud albedo from surface albedo effects,to allow for possible anisotropy in the bi-directional reflectance of solar radiation from the clouds,and to compare the data with results of theoretical calculations. Relations between the visible albedo and the infrared emittance, which were derived from satellitedata, and the visible optical depth, which was derived from lidar measurements, were comparedwith theoretical relations derived from two

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Thomas P. Charlock, Karen M. Cattany-Carnes, and Fred Rose

, in final form I December 1987) The fluctuation statistics of Northern Hemisphere winter outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) computed bya general circulation model (G-CM) are compared with those obtained from Nimbus 7 and NOAA AVHRRsalellite observations. The model cloud areas, heigh~ and infrared emissivities change in response to othervariables. The effect of the C-CM clouds on the OLR is diagnosed by computing separate statistics for the GCMclear sky OLR. This permits us to isolate the effect

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C. DORNO

348 MONTHLY WEATHER RETTEW. JUNE, 19u)SUGCiESTIONS CONCERNlNG DR. C. G. ABBOT'S PROGRAM FOR FOUR WORLD OBSERVATORIES FOR THE OBSERVATION OF EXTRATERRESTRIAL SOLAR RADIATION.Ey C. DORNO.IDSYOS, Switzerland, Yay ?l, 182O.lSYNoPsIs. a curve, which, through all the variations of cloudiness, hrightiiess, and alt,itude of the suli, conies satlsfactorrlylle21r t,he physiological brightlless curve t.llat acts upon the liumaii eye. The norinal curves, resulting from regUlar @bServiltiOll Series carried

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Andrew F. Bunker

have been calculated by substituting ship meteorological observations into bulk aerodynamic and empiricalradiation equations. Upper-air measurements of humidity and temperature have been used to supplement thesurface empirical infrared radiation formula. North Atlantic fluxes have been updated using upper-air humiditiesand the same technique. Charts of annual fluxes and meteorological variable averages are presented and discussedin terms of meteorological conditions, oceanic heat advection

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James D. Spinhirne and William D. Hart

cloud may bedefined as the emittance that would be derived fromobservations if the cloud were assumed to be totallyabsorptive. In actuality, ice crystals both scatter andabsorb radiation in the thermal infrared. However,since radiation is both scattered into and out of a propagation direction, radiative transfer calculations indicate that the effective emittance is typically within 10%of the true emittance (Platt and Stevens 1980). Also,the effective emittance in itself is generally an

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RICHARD A. ANTHES and DONALD R. JOHNSON

's cross section, the magnitude of thenegative efficiency factors is small; however, the largeamount of mass with negative values suggests that genera-tion by the infrared component should be investigated.The infrared radiation model for this study was formu-lated from actual radiometersonde data and a typicalcloud distribution for a hurricane. Several radiometer-sonde flights with typical subt.ropica1 cloud distributionswere selected from a series of approximately 100 flightsconducted in the Carribean

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