Search Results

You are looking at 21 - 30 of 194 items for :

  • Infrared radiation x
  • Journal of Physical Oceanography x
  • All content x
Clear All
Kristina B. Katsaros

) agree that it is very likely that supercooling occurs at the surface of open leads duringperiods of appreciable heat loss. During measurements t Contribution No. 285, Department of Atmospheric Sciences,University of Washington.of radiative surface temperature at the offshore lead atPt. Barrow, Alaska, in April 1972, evidence of a supercooled surface layer was found.2. Instrumentation and procedures An infrared radiometer (PRTS, Barnes EngineeringCo.), which responds to radiation in the

Full access
Victor E. Delnore

horizontal advection, mass exchange with thelayers below D, net infrared radiation, evaporation,sensible heat transfer, and thermal diffusion. The valuesused for p, cp, and L are, respectively, 1.02 gm cm-~, 0.93cal (-C)-~ gm-1, and 581 cal gm-~ (Sverdrup et al.1942). Of these terms, the solar radiation, mean horizontaladvection, net infrared radiation, evaporation, andsensible heat transfer will be retained, and these willbe symbolized as Qr, Q~, Qb, Qe and Qc, respectively.Effects due to vertical

Full access
James J. Simpson and Clayton A. Paulson

demonstrated that the upperfew millimeters of natural water surfaces were typically cooler than the water below. The temperaturedifference occurs because the vertical flux of heat Qjust below the surface is generally upward, thetotal being the sum of the fluxes to the atmosphereof net longwave radiation R, sensible heat H, andlatent heat E, i.e., Q = H + E + R. A schematic diagram of the upper centimeter ofthe sea is shown in Fig. 1. Just below the interfacethere is a viscous sublayer of thickness ~ in

Full access
Karl Bumke, Michael Schlundt, John Kalisch, Andreas Macke, and Henry Kleta

energy due to radiation fluxes. As for turbulent heat fluxes, there is still a shortage of available radiation flux measurements over the ocean (e.g., Rutledge et al. 2006 ), while over land, for example, the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN; Ohmura et al. 1998 ) provides accurate measurements. Within the frame of OCEANET (autonomous measurement platforms for energy and material exchange between ocean and atmosphere; Macke et al. 2010 ), we have performed both radiation flux and heat flux

Full access
B. B. Hicks and G. D. Hess

the clear-sky net infrared radiation obtained fromthese four relationships vary considerably, particularlyin low latitudes where the range amounts to a factor ofmore than 2. Because there appears to be no elearexperimental evidence favoring any one of theseformulas, our results shall be based on the average ofthe four estimates. We wish to emphasize that thisuncertainty in the estimate of the net infrared radiation,144JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHYVo~.u~g 7hO0

Full access
Yun He, Xiao-Hai Yan, and W. Timothy Liu

momentum (wind stresses), freshwater, radiative, latent, and sensible heat fluxes can be estimated by the bulk formula using satellite observed and directly measured variables. Net surface heat flux Q consists of net shortwave radiation Q I minus net longwave radiation Q B , latent heat flux Q E , and sensible heat flux Q H ( Stevenson and Niiler 1983 ; Talley 1984 ): Net shortwave radiation is given as ( Reed 1977 ): where α is the surface albedo; here we take α to be 0.055, a typical

Full access
Amy S. Bower and Nelson G. Hogg

specific growth and decay stages.Only if the meanders have these transient characteristics can energy from the eastward-propagating meanders "leak" into adjacent frequency and wavenumberbands where westward propagation is possible. Observations of the Gulf Stream path based on satellite infrared imagery show that this condition is satisfied,suggesting barotropic wave radiation from the GulfStream should be possible.To see if the radiation models could reproduce theobserved distributions of eddy kinetic

Full access
George W. Kattawar, Gilbert N. Plass, and John A. Guinn Jr.

NO. 4 JOURNAL OF PH VSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY OCTOBER 1973Monte Carlo Calculations of the Polarization of Radiation in the Earth's Atmosphere-Ocean System(;F. Ot~OE W. K^rr:r^w^~, (;xr~m~.R'r N. PI.^ss AND JOItN A. (;UINN, Jt~. Dept. of Physics, Texas A&M University, College Station 77843 (Manuscript received 10 May 1973, in revised form 12 July 1973)ABSTRACT The degree and direction of polarization, the

Full access
Fabrice Veron, W. Kendall Melville, and Luc Lenain

Research Platform FLIP , moored off the coast of San Diego, California. The first took place from 21 to 29 July 2002 at 32°38.43′N, 117°57.42′W in 302 m of water. The second was from 20 to 26 August 2003 and took place west of Tanner Bank at 32°40.20′N, 119°19.46′W, in 312 m of water ( Fig. 1 ). The primary instruments included an active and passive infrared imaging and altimetry system ( Veron et al. 2008a ) and a direct eddy-covariance atmospheric flux package, including longwave and shortwave

Full access
L. Mahrt, Dean Vickers, Edgar L Andreas, and Djamal Khelif

) Twin Otter measured the SST with a Heimann KT19.85 infrared pyrometer. No corrections to the SST were made for the upward reflection of downward longwave radiation. This omission is equivalent to assuming a longwave emissivity of unity for the sea surface while the actual emissivity is generally 0.98–0.99. This assumption is also used to convert the measured upward longwave radiation to the SST. SHOWEX consisted of three 1-month field programs: November 1997, March 1999, and November 1999. The

Full access