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Eric P. Kelsey, Cameron P. Wake, Kaplan Yalcin, and Karl Kreutz

(1996; Wake et al. 2002 ). Analysis of the first Eclipse Icefield core showed that isotopes shared a mere 5%–10% variability with regional station summer temperatures ( Wake et al. 2002 ). The ability to reconstruct past climate from proxy records depends fundamentally on the development of an accurate depth–age scale (e.g., Dansgaard et al. 1989 ; Alley et al. 1993 ), especially for the calibration period. Several samples each year are needed for precise dating of firn and ice cores using δ 18

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David Noone

, is defined as the fraction of condensation that falls as precipitation (i.e., P = εC ). The remaining condensation, (1 − ε ) C , is the production of cloud liquid. Including the rainfall efficiency is a key aspect of the present analysis. An expression similar to (1) can be written for q D where isotopic counterparts to S , C , X , and M differ because of fractionation and the isotopic composition of the source water (e.g., Noone and Sturm 2010 ). Given different assumptions, as

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A. Henderson-Sellers, K. McGuffie, and H. Zhang

1. Isotopic analysis as a tool in Amazonian research a. History of isotopes in the Amazon Isotopic data have been used to determine important characteristics of Amazonian hydrologic cycling by means of testing and tuning parameters of simple models for about 30 years. Despite a long history of isotopic records from the Amazon, there has been, to date, no attempt to use isotopic data to evaluate global climate models' (GCMs') predictions of the possible impacts of Amazonian deforestation. Salati

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Jean-Claude Grenier and Pierre Admirat Sadok Zair

. Analysis tech niques and application to trajectory determination. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 846-854.Carte, A. E., and G. N. Mader, 1977: Hailstorms in the Transvaal on 29 November 1972. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 103, 731 749.Dansgaard, W., 1964: Stable isotopes in precipitation. Tellus, 14, 436-468.Facy, L., L. Merlivat, G. Nief and E. Roth, 1962: Etude de la formation d'un gr~lon par une m6thode d'analyse isotopique. J. M~c. Phys. Atmos., 2, No. 14, 67-77.Federer, B., and A. Wald~ogel, 1978

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Stanley David Gedzelman, Jeffrey Marc Rosenbaum, and James R. Lawrence

precipitation using an o~ profile varying sinusoidally with pressure in the cloud. During passage of the thunderstorms, however, stratiform solutions significantly underestimated the ~ valuesusing the sounding derived from the National Meteorological Center analysis. The discrepancies between modelcalculations and measured isotopic values of precipitation were able to provide a check on the meteorologicalanalyses. The analysis was modified to incorporate the effects of a large-amplitude gravity wave

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Christophe Sturm, Georg Hoffmann, and Bärbel Langmann

isotope variations in Andean ice cores are primarily related to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. Furthermore, experimental evidence from an isotopic precipitation sampling network across Bolivia demonstrated that local temperatures have limited influence on the isotopic composition ( Vimeux et al. 2005 ). Back-trajectory analysis shows that, under prevailing intertropical easterlies, the origin of moisture precipitating over eastern Andean summits is located in the Atlantic. Using a

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Huancui Hu and Francina Dominguez

. In the southwestern United States, measurements of δ D in water vapor during one premonsoon period show that most of the isotopic variability can be associated with changes in the advection of atmospheric moisture from different source regions ( Strong et al. 2007 ). In their study, Strong et al. (2007) show that periods of high δ D are linked to precipitation originating from the Gulf of Mexico, while low δ D values originate from the Pacific. Similarly, in an analysis of isotopic

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G. W. K. Moore, Robert D. Field, and Carl S. Benson

Gedzelman and Lawrence (1990) using an isotopically equipped regional climate model to interpret a similarly large isotopic shift in precipitation over the eastern United States. Given the magnitude of the observed isotopic shift during the event, the 1980 case study for Mount Wrangell considered here is another strong candidate for more detailed analysis, given the importance of the region for reconstructing North Pacific climate variability using isotopic proxies. In that context, this case study

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B. Federer, B. Thalmann, and J. Jouzel

Hailstone collections were made in seven storms well documeot~l by radar measurements. Thin sectionswere prepared of over 2000 hailstones for crystallographic analysis of embryos and growth layers. Themajority of the embryos were frozen drops, embedded in a clear layer (2A type). Selected hailstones werealso analyzed for their deuterium and oxygen-18 isotope content. The results, plotted in a ~D-~O~8 diagramgive information on the extent to which embryos and growth layers evaporated and/or condensed

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Shengjie Wang, Mingjun Zhang, Yanjun Che, Xiaofan Zhu, and Xuemei Liu

Normal University. Every sample and isotopic standard was injected sequentially six times, with the first two injections discarded because of memory effects, and the results were expressed as δ values relative to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW). The measurement precision is ±0.6‰ for δ D and ±0.2‰ for δ 18 O. More information on sampling and sample analysis is given in Wang et al. (2016) . b. Method Influenced by below-cloud evaporation of raindrops, the stable isotopic ratios in

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