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Pedro Sequera, Jorge E. González, Kyle McDonald, Steve LaDochy, and Daniel Comarazamy

minimum temperatures T min have warmed faster than daytime maximum values T max , thus decreasing the diurnal temperature range. The observed asymmetric warming at California coastal sites has been variously attributed to changes in cloud cover ( Nemani et al. 2001 ), sea surface temperatures (SSTs; Karl et al. 1993 ), upwelling ( Bakun 1990 ; Snyder et al. 2003 ; McGregor et al. 2007 ), changes in land cover/land use (LCLU; Mintz 1984 ; Zhang 1997 ; Chase et al. 2000 ; Pielke et al. 2002

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W. L. Ellenburg, R. T. McNider, J. F. Cruise, and John R. Christy

explained less than 38% of the annual and winter variance. Land-use/land-cover (LULC) change has been shown to alter cloudiness and potentially precipitation ( McNider et al. 1994 ; Wetzel and Chang 1987 ) so that some part of the soil moisture and cloudiness relationship found by Rogers (2013) may be an indirect effect of LULC change. Coincident with the past century’s warming hole, the southeastern United States experienced a major LULC change. While the region was a major agricultural producer at

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Yan Zhang, James A. Smith, Lifeng Luo, Zifa Wang, and Mary Lynn Baeck

(USGS) land use–land cover classification are delineated by the black (gray) contours (bottom). The center points of each TRMM grid cell at 0.25° are shown (bottom). The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes all observational data used in this study and presents the observational analyses on the regional precipitation variability in the greater Beijing area. Section 3 then presents the numerical sensitivity study to examine the impacts of urban expansion on regional precipitation

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Christopher Potter, Pusheng Zhang, Steven Klooster, Vanessa Genovese, Shashi Shekhar, and Vipin Kumar

together with climate, land management, and basinscale geographic relationships is presented as a groundwork study to precede distributed simulation modeling of surface hydrologic flows in large river basins. Correlation analysis is used as a screening method to classify river basins into categories based on major controls on discharge, for example, climate, land use, and dams. Specific research questions include To what extent do net monthly precipitation rates (PREC − PET) along a river drainage

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Renato Ramos da Silva, David Werth, and Roni Avissar

and 2050. They emphasize a pattern of deforestation that is quite different from the massive deforestation assumed in typical GCM simulations, and that can be resolved by regional climate models. The goal of the study summarized in this paper was to evaluate the impacts of these land-cover change scenarios on the wet-season climate of the Amazon basin. For this purpose, we used the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), a state-of-the-art regional climate model forced with actual

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Shuguang Liu, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Lena R. Boysen, James D. Ford, Andrew Fox, Kevin Gallo, Jerry Hatfield, Geoffrey M. Henebry, Thomas G. Huntington, Zhihua Liu, Thomas R. Loveland, Richard J. Norby, Terry Sohl, Allison L. Steiner, Wenping Yuan, Zhao Zhang, and Shuqing Zhao

1. Introduction Land-cover and land-use change (LCLUC) resulting from human activities in the Anthropocene has altered an estimated 50% of Earth’s land surface, mostly through conversion of forests to agricultural uses in the past century ( Ramankutty and Foley 1999 ; Foley et al. 2011 , Hurtt et al. 2011 ; Klein Goldewijk et al. 2011 ; Waters et al. 2016 ). These changes have substantially affected Earth’s climate at local to global scales through altered biogeochemical and biogeophysical

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Jenny Lindén, Jan Esper, and Björn Holmer

1. Introduction It is well known that anthropogenic changes in land cover and land use (LCLU) can impact climate, with the most pronounced effects found in urban areas. A changed energy balance caused by many factors—increased thermal admittance of urban materials, limited radiative and advective cooling due to the urban geometry, lowered evapotranspiration cooling due to sealed surfaces and limited vegetation coverage, and anthropogenic heat release—tend to increase air temperatures in urban

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Yingbin He, Dongmei Liu, Yanmin Yao, Qing Huang, Jianping Li, Youqi Chen, Shuqin Shi, Li Wan, Shikai Yu, and Deying Wang

. 2008 ). Little attention, however, has been paid to this problem in the literature. Hence, there is an urgent need for the development of suitability mapping for spring soybean cultivation, including a comparative analysis of suitability mapping with actual planted areas. Assessment of land-use suitability is one of the most important branches in land science. The literature on land suitability analysis is extensive, and, in general, most of the studies focus on biophysical characteristics such as

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Jesse Winchester, Rezaul Mahmood, William Rodgers, Faisal Hossain, Eric Rappin, Joshua Durkee, and Themis Chronis

1. Introduction and background Land-use land-cover change (LULCC) plays an important role in modulating weather and climate at all spatiotemporal scales ( Pielke et al. 2011 ; Mahmood et al. 2014 ). Relationships between land cover and the atmosphere have been well studied in terms of their influence on weather and climate ( Halldin et al. 1999 ; Narisma et al. 2003 ; Schneider and Eugster 2005 ; Adegoke et al. 2007 ; Pielke et al. 2007 ). Observational data have revealed the strong

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Kristina Trusilova, Barbara Früh, Susanne Brienen, Andreas Walter, Valéry Masson, Grégoire Pigeon, and Paul Becker

atmospheric models serve as an instrument for studying the climate on spatial scales below 50–80 km. Such models can resolve the atmospheric flow in detail to account for urban-specific processes. The increasing resolution of regional climate models in the last decade lead to the increase of their complexity. On the fine spatial scales of 1–10 km, the parameterization of different land uses requires more discretization between natural and human-made surfaces as they differ greatly in their thermal and

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