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Stephen M. Strader and Walker S. Ashley

mortality rate, compared to Alabama ( Ashley 2007 ; Ashley and Strader 2016 ). Because both states have similar tornado risk ( Ashley and Strader 2016 ), the disparity between Alabama and Kansas tornado mortality may be attributed to the differences between the central Plains’ and Southeast’s underlying land-use patterns, socioeconomic and demographic 3 vulnerabilities, and built-environment characteristics ( Ashley 2007 ; Simmons and Sutter 2011 ; Ashley and Strader 2016 ; Strader et al. 2016

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Ákos Malatinszky

) to identify themes. Reported features were divided onto those that are linked directly to weather and climate and those that result from nonclimatic pressures (e.g., land use). 3. Results The main themes and concepts that were identified through data analysis are negative impacts resulting from extreme floods, droughts, and heat waves, adverse conditions for livestock, decreased quantity and quality of hay, winter shortage of green fodder, increased water demand, shifting grazing season

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Rachel E. Schattman, Stephanie E. Hurley, Holly L. Greenleaf, Meredith T. Niles, and Martha Caswell

planning ( Lange et al. 2008 ; Lewis et al. 2012 ; Middel et al. 2009 ; Visscher et al. 2016 ). They have also been used for depiction of forest and parks management options ( Bettigole et al. 2014 ; Junker and Buchecker 2008 ; Lange 2011 ). An emerging body of scholarship in recent years has applied PVZs in the context of agricultural land management. For example, Warren-Kretzschmar and Von Haaren (2014) report on the use of simulated PVZs in participatory planning processes at the farm scale

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Linda Stalker Prokopy, Tonya Haigh, Amber Saylor Mase, Jim Angel, Chad Hart, Cody Knutson, Maria Carmen Lemos, Yun-Jia Lo, Jean McGuire, Lois Wright Morton, Jennifer Perron, Dennis Todey, and Melissa Widhalm

agriculture is an intensive operation that combines simultaneous and staged decisions, by season and across multiple years, about a large number of issues, including crop and seed selection, nutrient inputs (rate, timing, method, type), planting and harvesting timing and processes, crop insurance, equipment purchases, crop protection needs, and land management practices. Climate and weather information may impact agricultural decisions at multiple time scales. Farmers make short-term, operational

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Kirsti Jylhä, Heikki Tuomenvirta, Kimmo Ruosteenoja, Hanna Niemi-Hugaerts, Krista Keisu, and Juha A. Karhu

1. Introduction During the twentieth century, from 1901 to 2000, the average surface air temperature in European land areas increased by 0.8 ± 0.3°C ( Luterbacher et al. 2004 ), alongside a global mean warming of 0.74° ± 0.18°C from 1906 to 2006 ( Solomon et al. 2007 ). At the same time, the most extreme climatic zones of the earth in the widely used Köppen classification system showed statistically significant shifts: the global areas covered by tropical climate expanded, whereas the tundra

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Samuel J. Childs, Russ S. Schumacher, and Stephen M. Strader

; Nakićenović and Swart 2000 ), Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS; U.S. EPA 2016 ), and SSPs ( O’Neill et al. 2013 ). The five SSPs are based on national-level projections of various sectors such as economics, education, technology, and immigration, and are meant to provide a measure of how a society will be able to adapt to and mitigate the influences of a changing climate ( Jones and O’Neill 2013 , 2016 ). Thus, the SSPs have gained a particular following in natural hazards research ( Ebi

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Kurt B. Waldman, Noemi Vergopolan, Shahzeen Z. Attari, Justin Sheffield, Lyndon D. Estes, Kelly K. Caylor, and Tom P. Evans

rain onset in the previous four seasons and approximately a decade ago [see the methods section ( section 2 ) for more detail]. Rainfall data are at 5-km daily resolution from the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) dataset ( Funk et al. 2015 ). Soil moisture estimates are at a 1-km daily resolution estimated using HydroBlocks, a hyper-resolution, physically based land surface model ( Chaney et al. 2016 ). We translated farmer heuristics into biophysical metrics that

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Juan Declet-Barreto, Kim Knowlton, G. Darrel Jenerette, and Alexander Buyantuev

covers are known to be responsible for the UHI microclimatic signature of cities ( Oke 1997 ; Arnfield 2003 ; Li and Bou-Zeid 2013 ). Although the classic UHI signature is an observable temperature gradient between the urban built environment and surrounding rural areas ( Balling and Brazel 1987 ), UHI magnitudes within cities show significant spatial heterogeneity and are driven by land use/land cover and density of the built environment ( Ruddell et al. 2010 ). The sensitivity of populations to

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Theresa Jedd, Deborah Bathke, Duane Gill, Bimal Paul, Nicole Wall, Tonya Bernadt, Jacob Petr, Anthony Mucia, and Milan Wall

, increased reliance on groundwater, and diminished fish and wildlife habitat. In 2012, the warmest July on record drew attention back to the devastating effects of the Great Plains drought 10 years earlier ( NOAA/NCEI 2012 ). By January of 2013, conditions had worsened, and counties in 14 states were declared natural disaster areas from drought ( USDA 2013 ). In Nebraska, surface water use was prohibited because of low river levels; in some cases, groundwater irrigators used as much water by mid-July as

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Jase Bernhardt

Faurer (1983) analyzed logs from Hudson’s Bay Company ships in order to track summer sea ice severity in the Hudson Bay during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and Landsea et al. (2004) utilized ship reports published in newspapers, among other sources, to determine hurricane tracks in the Atlantic Ocean between 1851 and 1910. Moreover, on land, the accounts of French peasants were used by Baker (2012) to investigate the damage caused by hail to crops in France prior to World War I. The

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