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Geirmunder Árnason and Richard S. Greenfield

experimcnt lb. Negative values correspond tomotion toward the left and positive values toward the right.values of O, w, and specific water content are 0.81C,177 cm sec-~, and 1.05 gm kg-1 for la as comparedwith 0.42C, 101 cm sec-~, and 0.69 gm kg-~ for themicrophysical run lb After 14 rain of simulated convection, la shows awell-developed circulation cell with its center at 1300 m,as illustrated in Fig. 6a. This is the primary circulationcell associated with an excess potential temperature ofmore than

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Sue Chen, Russell L. Elsberry, and Patrick A. Harr

enthalpy flux transfers from the ocean to the TC. Consequently, the TC intensity is decreased with a larger-magnitude cold wake, while the TC intensification is favored over a region of higher ocean heat content. A dynamic pathway of the cold wake on the TC circulation was first demonstrated with a simple idealized hurricane model ( Zhu et al. 2004 ) and subsequently confirmed by a full-physics coupled simulation of Hurricane Katrina ( Chen et al. 2010 ). Using the ocean-coupled version of the Coupled

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David J. Raymond and Marvin H. Wilkening

mixing model of a cumulus cloud over the lateral entrainment model. In one case, theconvergent low level heat island circulation over the mountain was observed to change to an almost nondivergent, asymmetric circulation as a thunderstorm over the mountain reached maturity.1. Introduction In the American southwest it is well known thatsummer thunderstorms generally form first over themountains. This is the second of a series of papersreporting detailed observations of this phenomenon. The first

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T. Dunkerton, C-P. F. Hsu, and M. E. McIntyre

general circulation and stratospheric-tropospheric mass ex change: II. Lagrangian motion of the atmosphere. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan., $5, 71-88.Labitzke, K., 1977: Interannual variability of the winter strato sphere in the Northern Hemisphere. Mon. Wea. Rev., 105, 762-770.Leibovich, S., 1980: On wave-current theories of Langmuir circulations, J. Fluid Mech., 99, 715-724.Longuet-Higgins, M. S., 1968: The eigenfunctions of Laplace's tidal equations over a sphere. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London

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Aaron-Hi Cohen and Isaiah Gallily

-superposition model(Langmuir, 1948). In this model, the equations of translational motion can be written in the formm~lV'L/dt' -~-m~g- ~/4)C~>.~ Re~a~(V~- U;)q-Fo.~, (3)m flV/ dt~ =-msg- (-/4)G,,~ Re,~a~(V;-UD+F,,~, (4)where the local Reynolds numbers Re~ and Re~ arede~ed by ge~= 2a~I (V~-- U;~/~, (5) Re,= 2a,I (E-- U21/~. (6)Following Pearcy and Hill (1957) and Lin and Lee(1975), we assumed the drag coefficients Cr,~ andC

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Gilbert D. Kinzer and William E. Cobb

of the radii the rate of increasewith respect to time of the mass m of a droplet fallingwith a velocity V through a cloud of droplets. However, the relationships between the growth rate andthe radii are shown more conveniently and clearly bya dimensionless factor E which is defined as the ratioof the liquid-water collected per unit time to theamount contained as cloud in the volume of the pathof fall swept out per unit time, i.e.,(1)where pw is the density of water. According to Langmuir

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K. V. Beard

(1945) devised two CD Re2formulas for a sphere based on available drag data.Shortly thereafter Langmuir (1948) applied theCo Re2 method to spherical hydrometeors.Mason (1957) apparently introduced the notionthat the drag coefficient data on large deformabledrops falling at terminal velocity could be used forcomputing raindrop velocities aloft. Subsequently,others have obtained C, ReZ formulas for raindrops(e.g., Cornford, 1965; Berry and Pranger, 1974; Gayet al., 1974). This method leads to a

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J. B. Cimino and C. Elachi

the rotating solid surface of the planet. The precipitation regions, if they exist, will be moving with a high tangential velocity because of the atmospheric circulation.Their echos would have a much larger Doppler shift and the corresponding spectrum could be anywhere between -+2850Hz depending on their location (see text for details).Using the values in Table 2 and Eq. (7) for the backscatter cross section (i.e., rr = 1.6 x 104 R3/2), wefind that SNR = 5 x 10-4 (RAX)at2, (14)where R

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Gregory Thompson and Trude Eidhammer

.)- diameter cylinder assumed to be moving at 89.1 m s −1 (200 mph), consistent with values used for decades by the aircraft-icing research community ( Jeck 2001 ): and and K is the Stokes number, Re is Reynolds number, ϕ is Langmuir’s parameter, μ is dynamic viscosity of air, ρ w is the density of water, and ρ a is air density. REFERENCES Albrecht , B. , 1989 : Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness . Science , 245 , 1227 – 1230 , doi: 10.1126/science.245.4923.1227 . Arenberg

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Donald R. MacGorman, Donald W. Burgess, Vladislav Mazur, W. David Rust, William L. Taylor, and Brenda C. Johnson

velocity analysis byerrors in the data or in analysis assumptions and byunsampled horizontal wind components (during theearlier of the two volume scans, the angle between thebeams of the two radars was only about 25- at themesocyclone). Although these errors will affect thevalues in the vertical velocity field, and the analysissmooths extreme values and small features, we believethat the general patterns we found are correct. As mentioned previously, the circulation that eventually spawned the

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